Self-Disclosure and Self-Presentation in Online Dating - the Influence of Motivation
交友網站 ； 網路交友動機 ； 自我揭露 ； 個人資訊美化 ； Online Dating site ； Online Relationship Motivation ； Self-Disclosure ； Self-Presentation
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近年來由於網路的盛行，交友網站成為人際關係建立的重要管道。交友網站與其他 社交工具之主要差別在於交友網站提供個人檔案功能，使用者藉由揭露個人資訊，能增 加被了解的機會。個人檔案同時也是一種行銷工具，一個吸引人的個人檔案，能增加他 人認識的意願。過去研究指出自我揭露能促進關係發展，然而安全性與隱私的考量可能 降低使用者揭露的意願。過去的研究也發現在關係發展初期人們會根據使用者所呈現的 資訊決定是否追求這段關係。因此如何展現自己吸引人的一面是關係發展的一個重要議 題，而交友網站使用者也承認他們利用理想化的自我呈現來吸引他人注意。然而美化個 人資訊不是沒有風險，當他人發現檔案中的資訊與現實生活的本人有落差時，他們會感 到失望、憤怒，甚至可能斷絕關係。 由於使用者涉入交友網站的動機不同，本研究認為不同交友動機的使用者在建立個 人檔案時，由於建立關係的目的不同，對於評估自我揭露與美化個人資訊的利弊得失也 會有不同的認知，進而影響其資訊提供行為。 本研究採問卷調查法，以線上關係動機量表衡量網路交友動機。並整理交友網站個 人檔案欄位，設計自我揭露與理想化自我呈現量表，針對交友網站會員進行調查，有效 樣本數為619位。資料分析以相關分析、ANOVA與T檢定檢視研究問題。研究結果顯示， 認識新朋友、方便的溝通和尋找愛情等動機與自我揭露成正相關。具有認識新朋友動機 的使用者認為揭露越多個人資訊，越能幫助他們讓有共同興趣或背景的人所了解。方便 溝通動機的使用者則認為交友網站易用與方便的特性，能讓資訊揭露更順暢，提升其自 我揭露的意願。尋找愛情動機的使用者認為自我揭露除了能增加被理想對象了解的機會 外，同時也是一種自動過濾不適合人選的機制。而認識新朋友、尋找愛情和尋找性伴侶 等動機則與個人資訊美化成正相關。認識新朋友動機的使用者為了營造彼此的相似性而 美化自己的個人資訊。尋找愛情動機的使用者則秉持著日久生情的想法，他們認為美化 個人資訊能促進關係的建立，一旦關係建立之後，隨著相處時間增加，自己真正的優點 可以被對方發覺，此時美化個人資訊的行為或許可以被對方接受。尋找性伴侶的使用者 對提升人際吸引力的需求較其他動機來的大，而美化個人資訊可以滿足他們的需求。加 上他們只想發展短期關係，因此美化個人資訊對關係帶來的危害對他們來說也就沒這麼 嚴重。既然他們想提升吸引力，又願意承擔美化個人資訊可能帶來的風險，自然而然尋 找性伴侶的使用者會美化個人檔案。
Due to the prevalence of Internet in recent years, more and more people use e-mail, instant messaging, chat rooms and online dating sites etc to communicate or develop interpersonal relationships. Online dating has even more become mainstream among the social means nowadays. The primary difference between dating site and other social means is the function of personal profile which dating site offered, individuals can disclose personal information through personal profile to increase the opportunity to be understood. Personal profile is also a marketing tool; an attractive personal profile can increase others’ intention to make friends with. Past research indicated that self-disclosure can enhance the development of relationship, while the concern for safety and privacy may lower online participants’ intention to disclose. Past research also found individuals would evaluate the information to decide whether to pursue the relationship. Therefore, how to present attractive aspects of self is an important IV issue of relationship formation. Online participants admit that they idealize their personal information to arouse others’ attention. However, idealized self-presentation does not have no risks, when others found there is a significant discrepancy in the personal profile, they are disappointed and even angry. Since individuals participate in dating sites with various motivations, this study argues that when constructing personal profile, individuals with different motivations would perceive the evaluation of pros and cons of self-disclosure and idealized self-presentation differently, and affecting the behavior of information offering. This study adopted online survey to collect data, using Online Friend-Making Motives Scale to measure motivations that lead individuals to involve in dating sites, and arranged fields of personal profile in three famous dating sites to design the self-disclosure and idealized self-presentation scale. The voluntary subjects were recruited from several famous discussion forums and dating sites, the valid sample was 619. This study used correlation analysis, ANOVA and t-test to examine the research question. The results showed that opportunity to meet new people, easier communication and the desire to find a love partner were significantly positive relative with the amount of personal profile disclosed on dating sites. Individuals with the motivation of opportunity to meet new people think disclosing more personal information help them to be understood by others who have the same interests or background. Individuals with the motivation of easier communication think the ease-to-use feature of dating sites can make self-disclosure smoother and consequently lead more information revealed. The reason why individuals who seek love would disclose more about themselves is that self-disclosure increases the possibility to be understood with their ideal love partner and it is also an automotive mechanism filtering out un-match participants. Besides, motivation of opportunity to meet new people, the desire to find a love partner and the desire to find a sexual partner were significantly positive relative to the idealized self-presentation of personal profile disclosed on dating sites. Individuals with the motivation V of opportunity to meet new people embellish their personal profile to build similarity. Individuals with the motivation to find a love partner hold the perspective of love will grow with time. They think idealizing personal information can foster the development of relationship, once the relationship formed successfully, with time passes, their advantage may be found eventually, then, the damage caused by idealized self-presentation becomes trivial. Since the requirement to increase interpersonal attractiveness of finding sexual partners motivation is larger than other motivations, idealizing personal information is a good method to satisfy their requirement. Moreover, individuals with this motivation just want to develop short-term relationships, therefore, the damage caused by idealized self-presentation is not a serious issue for them. Since individuals of finding sexual partners motivation want to increase attractiveness, and they are ready to shoulder the risks resulted from idealized self-presentation. It stands to reason that they will idealize their personal profile.
社會科學 > 管理學