Title

小型無人飛機自主編隊飛行功能之開發與飛行測試

Translated Titles

Development and Flight Test of Autonomous Formation Flight Capability for Small UAV System

DOI

10.6844/NCKU.2012.00206

Authors

丁繹仁

Key Words

小型無人飛行載具 ; 航電開發 ; 硬體迴路模擬系統 ; 姿態估測 ; 模糊控制 ; 編隊飛行 ; 擴展式卡爾曼濾波 ; Small UAV ; Avionics Design ; Hardware-In-the-Loop Simulation ; Attitude Estimation ; Fuzzy Logic Control ; Formation Flight ; Extended Kalman Filter

PublicationName

成功大學航空太空工程學系學位論文

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

2012年

Academic Degree Category

博士

Advisor

蕭飛賓

Content Language

英文

Chinese Abstract

本研究之主要目的,為開發一套具有自主編隊飛行能力的小型無人飛機系統。本研究針對自主編隊飛行,進行技術開發。為達成此目標,本研究開發飛燕無人飛機系統(Swallow Unmanned Air Vehicle System,Swallow UAV System)為編隊飛行實驗平台,其由兩架電動無人飛機(長機與僚機)與一組地面站組成,具有無線資料鏈傳輸長機位置、速度、與姿態至僚機,以進行編隊飛行。另有一組硬體迴路模擬開發環境(HILSE)輔助系統開發工作。由於電動無人飛機之籌載小,無法搭載高精度姿態航向參考系統(AHRS),因此本研究開發一個基於單天線GPS 的姿態估測與模糊控制系統,以控制飛機的滾轉與俯仰角,並以飛測實驗數據分析之方法,決定其參數。長機利用上述的姿態估測與模糊控制系統,加上以模糊控制方法建立之長機自主導航功能,建立長機模糊導航,導引與控制系統(L-FGNCS)。僚機則以姿態估測與模糊控制系統加上模糊自主編隊控制器,組成僚機模糊導航,導引與控制系統(W-FGNCS)。此二系統導航與導引部份之參數由硬體迴路模擬決定。最後利用擴展式卡爾曼濾波器(EKF)建構長機導航資料估測器(LME),於雙機編隊飛行之中,進行長機位置、速度、與姿態之估測,以解決由於無線資料鏈傳輸中段造成之長機導航資料斷訊問題。L-FGNCS、W-FGNCS、與LME 經由一連串飛行測試程序,進行飛行測試與功能驗證,並避免空中碰撞之發生。由飛測結果顯示,L-FGNCS 可以正確進行自主導航,其追蹤半徑為150 公尺,高度100 公尺之圓形軌跡,橫向誤差為8 至-4 米,高度誤差為0 至-4 米。W-FGNCS 於飛行測試中將僚機維持在長機後方20 公尺,左方20公尺,以及上方20 公尺處,其縱向、橫向、高度相對誤差平均值分別為11.94 公尺、5.92 公尺、1.47 公尺,標準差分別為7.30 公尺、10.10 公尺、2.35 公尺。其性能可以滿足編隊飛行之需求。LME經由飛行測試,其相對位置估測誤差平均值於縱向為2.03 公尺、橫向為-0.99 公尺、高度為-0.07公尺,標準差分別為6.55 公尺、4.12 公尺、0.42 公尺。其性能可以滿足即時長機導航資料估測之要求。本研究建構之飛燕無人飛機系統,具有基本編隊飛行功能,並以飛行測試成功展示此功能。未來發展方面,可針對追蹤性能作進一步提升,或是擴展姿態估測的適用範圍,亦可結合影像系統,增進系統可靠度。

English Abstract

In this study, the small unmanned air vehicle (UAV) system with autonomous formation flight capability is developed, designed and flight tested. The major objective of this research is to establish the fundamental formation flight research capability, including the system hardware, software, simulation environment, methodology of autonomous formation flight, and demonstration of the basic autonomous formation flight functionality by the established system. In this research, the small UAV system named Swallow is developed as the experimental platform to support the research of formation flight, which is composed of two electric motor powered aircraft as the leader and the wingman and a set of ground control station (GCS). It contains a wireless network system to transmit the position, velocity, and attitude information of the leader aircraft to the wingman aircraft, to make the wingman aircraft following the leader aircraft. A hardware-in-the-loop simulation environment (HILSE) is also developed to support and validate the development of the system. In order to perform autonomous formation flight control, the fuzzy logic control (FLC) based guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) system for the leader and wingman aircraft are implemented. Because the size and payload capacity limitations of the motor powered aircraft, the high precision attitude and heading reference system (AHRS) cannot be carried onboard by such a small aircraft. The single antenna GPS based attitude estimation method with attitude FLC is evaluated to control the roll and pitch angles of the aircraft. The parameters of the designed attitude estimation method and the attitude FLC are determined by the experimental data post-processing. The leader fuzzy guidance, navigation, and control system (L-FGNCS) is composed of the above attitude estimation and control system and the FLC based autonomous navigation algorithms, and the wingman fuzzy guidance, navigation, and control system (W-FGNCS) is the combination of the attitude estimation and control system with the FLC based formation control algorithm. The guidance and navigation parameters of them are determined by the hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation. The leader motion estimator (LME) based on the extended Kalman filter (EKF) is evaluated to estimate the motion of the leader aircraft, including the position, velocity, and attitude information to cope with the situation that the data link loss may occur in flight test. The L-FGNCS, the W-FGNCS, and the LME are flight tested by a series of designed flight test procedures to verify their functionalities and reduce the risk of the mid-air collision. For the L-FGNCS, the aircraft can track the circular trajectory, which is 150m in radius and 100m in altitude, with the lateral error of 8m to -4m and the altitude error of 0m to -4m. The W-FGNCS is flight tested with the condition that the desired leader position is ahead of, right of, and below the wingman with 20m separations. The relative x-axis, y-axis, and z-axis position error means are 11.94m, 5.92m, and 1.47m, respectively, and the standard deviations are 7.30m, 10.10m, and 2.35m, similarly. The performance meets the basic requirements of the formation flight. The LME is flight tested with the mean relative x-axis, y-axis, and z-axis position estimation errors of 2.03m, -0.99m, and -0.07m, and the standard deviations of 6.55m, 4.12m, and 0.42m, respectively. Its performance is satisfactory to estimate the motion of the leader aircraft in real time. The Swallow UAV system is constructed with the fundamental formation flight capability, and the capability is demonstrated by flight test. The future research direction includes the system performance improvement, attitude estimation enhancement, and vision based formation flight.

Topic Category 工學院 > 航空太空工程學系
工程學 > 交通運輸工程
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