Title

神經質、嚴謹性、自傷效果預期及國中生自傷行為之關係

Translated Titles

Neuroticism, Conscientiousness, Outcome Expectancy of Self-Harm Behavior and Self-Harm Behaviors among Junior High School Students

DOI

10.6844/NCKU.2015.00666

Authors

陳姵璇

Key Words

國中生 ; 自我傷害行為 ; 自傷效果預期 ; 神經質 ; 嚴謹性 ; Self-Harm ; Neuroticism ; Conscientiousness ; Outcome Expectancy of Self-Harm Behavior

PublicationName

成功大學行為醫學研究所學位論文

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

2015年

Academic Degree Category

碩士

Advisor

黃惠玲

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

【研究背景】 第一次出現自傷行為較高的比例在國中生階段,其自傷盛行率為13~45%。自傷行為不僅造成身體上的損傷,也會危害心理健康,研究也指出自傷行為可預測自殺企圖,故了解國中生自傷行為的心理歷程路徑是重要的。 過去的研究在探討五大性格因素與自傷行為之關係中,指出神經質可較穩定地預測自傷行為,而嚴謹性與自傷行為呈低度負相關;另有關自傷功能相關研究指出,自傷行為最主要是為了達到紓緩情緒的效果;但社會學習論學者Bandura提出個體對行為後果的預期會影響行為的出現;故個體對自傷行為的後果預期可能影響個體自傷行為的出現,但仍有待探究。 綜合性格研究與社會學習論,本研究推論神經質較高的學生易經驗到負向情緒,可能容易學到用自傷行為調控情緒,而對該行為後果有較高的預期,使得神經質透過情緒調控自傷效果預期來預測自傷行為的產生及頻率。另一方面,嚴謹性高者,心思縝密、有計劃性,易考慮行為的後果;可能使個體在對自傷行為具有較高的負向後果預期時,更能抑制自傷行為;即嚴謹性可調節負向自傷效果預期對自傷行為的預測。 【研究目的與假設】 本研究之目的如下:(一)神經質是否可透過情緒調控自傷效果預期的中介而正向預測自傷行為之有無與自傷行為之頻率;(二)負向自傷效果預期是否可透過嚴謹性的調節作用,而負向預測自傷行為之有無與自傷行為之頻率。 【研究方法】 參與者:本研究採橫斷研究,以立意抽樣的方式,選取台南市某國中國一、國二之學生為對象,有效樣本為481份。 研究工具:包含個人基本資料、五因素性格量表簡版、自我傷害行為效果預期,以及自我傷害行為問卷。 研究程序:由受過訓練之研究人員,以班級進行團體施測。首先,對施測流程與內容詳細解說且強調匿名性與保密性;經參與者簽署填同意書,取得其同意後,再填答相關量表。問卷回收後,進行資料檢核、除錯、建檔後分析。 統計分析:使用SPSS 17.0版,以描述統計、獨立樣本t檢定、卡方檢定、相關分析、階層迴歸分析等統計檢定來進行資料分析。 【研究結果】 使用階層迴歸加以分析,以自傷行為有無或自傷行為頻率為結果變項,第一層控制性別後,無論結果變項為自傷行為的有無或自傷行為的頻率,在第二層放入神經質皆能夠顯著正向預測;當第三層再放入情緒調控自傷效果預期後,神經質與情緒調控自傷效果預期亦能夠顯著正向預測;但神經質的解釋力下降。此結果顯示神經質能直接預測自傷行為之有無與頻率;但也能透過情緒調控自傷效果預期中介正向預測國中生自傷行為有無及頻率。 以自傷行為有無為結果變項,在第一層放入性別控制後,第二層放入負向自傷效果預期及嚴謹性,第三層再放入負向自傷效果預期與嚴謹性的交互作用,結果顯示達顯著。進一步經單純主要效果分析指出,對嚴謹性高分者,負向自傷效果預期可負向預測自傷行為有無;但對嚴謹性中、低分者,負向效果預期則不能預測國中生自傷行為的產生。然而,以自傷行為頻率為結果變項,嚴謹性與負向自傷效果預期的交互作用並未達顯著。 【結論與建議】 本研究結果顯示:(一)國中生神經質可直接預測自傷行為的有無與自傷的頻率;也可透過情緒調控自傷效果預期的中介,而正向預測自傷行為的有無與頻率;(二)對高嚴謹性的國中生,自傷行為的負向後果預期愈高,自傷行為愈不會出現;但對中、低嚴謹性的國中生,對自傷行為的負向預期與其自傷行為的出現無關。 本研究採用橫斷研究,建議進一步以縱貫研究探討變項之間的因果關係;此外,本研究僅以單一問句當作結果變項之指標,建議未來可從各個面相蒐集自傷行為之表現,並將自傷行為做更細的區分,如:不同嚴重度的自傷行為,其頻率的多寡、自傷行為方式的致命性、自傷行為的動機…等。另亦可探討對於自傷行為後果預期的教育策略,以及非自傷其他情緒調控方法的教育方法,及其對自傷的防治成效探討。

English Abstract

The present study incorporated the acquired preparedness model (APM) to examine the relationship of neuroticism, conscientiousness and the outcome expectancy of self-harm behaviors to self-harm behaviors among junior high school students. The present research used cross sectional study design. Participants were recruited by cluster sampling and administered with the Shortened Chinese version of FFI, Self-Injurious Behavior Outcome Expectancy, and Self-harm behavior Questionnaire. Five hundred and ninety-five junior high school students completed the battery of questionnaires. The data was analyzed with hierarchical logistic regression and hierarchical multiple regression analyses. Results revealed that the positive outcome expectancy of self-harm for affect regulation partially mediated the relationship between neuroticism and self-harm behavior and frequencies. Moreover, conscientiousness moderated the negative outcome expectancy of self-harm to self-harm behavior, and not frequencies. The negative outcome expectancy of self-harm significantly predicted self-harm behavior solely in the higher level of conscientiousness, but not in the moderate or mild level of conscientiousness participants. These results have provided empirical evidence to illuminate how the interaction between the personality traits and cognitive factors is linked to self-harm among junior high school students.

Topic Category 醫藥衛生 > 醫藥總論
醫學院 > 行為醫學研究所
社會科學 > 心理學
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