Title

可變螺距四旋翼的導引與控制 - 在移動平台上自動起降

Translated Titles

The Guidance and Control of Variable-pitch Quadrotors - Autonomous Landing and Take-off on a Moving Vehicle

Authors

陸毅誠

Key Words

自動起降系統 ; 可變螺距四旋翼 ; 移動平台 ; 影像定位 ; 控制分配 ; Automatic take-off and landing ; variable-pitch quadrotor ; moving vehicle ; visual positioning ; control allocation

PublicationName

成功大學航空太空工程學系學位論文

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

2017年

Academic Degree Category

博士

Advisor

謝成

Content Language

英文

Chinese Abstract

本論文為四旋翼於船艦自動起降之前置研究。為能應用於真實環境,本論文的目標在於建構一套可於戶外使用的系統,並且能降落在狹小(1.2 x 1.2 m)且快速移動(3 m/s)的平台上。本論文針對四旋翼降落於移動平台的兩個關鍵問題提出可行的解決方案 1.提升定位準確度 本研究提出了使用影像定位技術提升原有系統的定位準確度。不同於大部分研究將影像定位系統安裝在無人載具上,此系統是安裝於移動載台上。此架構之優點是可以大幅度減少無人載具上所需要的裝備,適用於各種大小的無人載具。為了提高在多雲或是強烈陽光下的辨識成功率,本研究提出1)適應性背景去除法 (Adaptive Background Subtraction)與 2)適應性背景閥值 (Adaptive Background Threshold)。擷取圖樣後經過影像矩 (Image moment) 比對並判斷為目標無人載具後,再依鏡頭參數計算其相對移動載台位置資訊。由於結合衛星定位與慣性量測,即使在影像系統暫時性的失效,整體系統也可以提供連續的位置資訊。 2.提升四旋翼強健性 論文中提出以可變螺距四旋翼取代傳統四旋翼作為艦載機,因其具有較高的動態反應能力以及更完整的控制力輸出,更適合操作於各種惡劣的環境。但由於可變螺距四旋翼之偏航動態方程式不同於一般四旋翼,所以傳統的控制分配 (control allocation) 方法不可直接應用於可變螺距四旋翼。論文中完整分析各種狀況下的力與力矩方程式,依此結果推導適用於可變螺距四旋翼的控制分配方法。 論文最後闡述自動起降控制系統的完整設計,配合改良式影像輔助定位系統,及更為強健的可變螺距四旋翼,構成了一套艦載降落系統的完整方案。並以各種不同的實驗模擬在船艦降落可能的狀況,包括上下起伏運動與水平移動狀態下降落。最後成功地在戶外自動降落於以每秒3公尺前進的移動載台上。

English Abstract

The goal of this dissertation is to construct a system that can use at outdoors and land quadrotors on a narrow (1.2 x 1.2 m) and fast moving (3 m/s) vehicle. In this dissertation, we propose solutions for two key issues related to this research 1. Positioning accuracy improvement We propose a visual positioning system to improve the accuracy of the original positioning system. Unlike most studies that place the system on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), we place the system on a carrier vehicle. The advantage of this architecture is that it significantly reduces the equipment required for the unmanned aerial vehicles, thus it is suitable for UAVs of all sizes. In order to improve the success rate of recognition in cloudy or strong sunlight, we propose Adaptive Background Subtraction and Adaptive Background Threshold algorithms. The image moment of the extracted pattern is then compared to that of the target pattern to confirm the target. Then we calculate the relative position information according to the lens parameters. Benefit from the combination of GPS and inertial measurements is that the system can provide continuous position information when the visual positioning system is temporary unavailable. 2. Quadrotor robustness improvement A variable-pitch quadrotor is proposed to replace the traditional quadrotor as a carrier-based aircraft. Because of its high dynamic bandwidth and more complete control of the output, it is more suitable for operation in harsh environments. However, the variable-pitch quadrotor is completely different from the general quadrotor in the yaw equation; therefore, the traditional control allocation method cannot be applied to the variable-pitch quadrotor. In this paper, we analyze the force and moment equations under various conditions, and derive the control allocation method for the variable-pitch quadrotor. The design of the automatic landing and take-off control system is addressed in this dissertation. Various experiments are conducted to simulate the dynamic motions of the vessel, including up and down motions and moving forward motion. Finally, the quadrotor successfully lands automatically on a moving rover at the speed of 3 m/s in outdoor environment.

Topic Category 工學院 > 航空太空工程學系
工程學 > 交通運輸工程
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