Title

TPP回合談判進程與台灣之准入

Translated Titles

Progress of the Trans-pacific Partnership Agreement Negotiation and the Admittance of Taiwan

Authors

李亭潔

Key Words

法規調和 ; TPP ; 泛太平洋戰略夥伴協定 ; 臺灣加入TPP ; 區域經濟整合 ; 經貿障礙 ; TPP談判回合 ; Taiwan Joins TPP ; TPP Negotiations Rounds ; Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement ; TPP ; Regional Economic Integration ; Regulatory Coherence ; Trade Barriers

PublicationName

中山大學中國與亞太區域研究所學位論文

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

2016年

Academic Degree Category

碩士

Advisor

張顯超

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

近年區域經濟整合的風潮銳不可擋,我國縱使未成為多數區域整合協定之一員,也難排除不受其他國家區域貿易整合結果之影響。而2015年出現的進出口與外資挹注衰退頹勢,也逐漸警示我國正視加入區域經濟整合的必要性,特別為避免經貿關係過度集中中國大陸,TPP能作為均衡我國對外貿易與投資比重的領導角色。且TPP主要訴求為除去非關稅貿易障礙與敏感部門之市場開放,其適用之成員國,將會因更高標準的優惠門檻,創造經貿投資誘因,使彼此經貿往來更密切。意味著TPP之兩面刃,衝擊國內產業的同時,亦潛藏產業轉型的機會,而機會就在TPP談判結論的高標準已下降,我國應爭取TPP高標準之例外條件。具體作法而言,為尋求加入TPP之途徑,我方除須緊盯TPP之動向,跟上TPP之發展,能先於TPP協定,作出國內法規調和之改革,以示加入之決心,方能減輕產業因加入所造成的負擔。申言之,我方更須深入檢討對外與對內之加入障礙,評估突破之可能。 加入TPP對外障礙的重點,須優先處理對美國與對日本的雙邊談判,次而尋求其他成員國的支持。成員國支持的重要性會先於法規遵循,並能允許談判條件差異化。至於存在多少程度的中國大陸因素,都不該影響我方加入 TPP之決心。而此決心須透過內部自我的調整,亦即我方的內部障礙,補足適當的調整配套措施、落實完善的防衛機制,以及透明化、附帶影響評估的法規調和基礎,俾搭建政策落實之明確性與執行力。目前我國法規調和實踐進度尚中,但越晚加入TPP,法規遵循的成本越高,能於TPP供應鏈內創造的附加價值越少,如何加速產業升級,以優勢之姿加入TPP第二輪談判,仍待公私部門一致的努力。

English Abstract

With the recent trend of regional economic integration, even Republic of China (Taiwan) has not been the major part of the regional economic integrations. Taiwan is inevitably not excluded by the effect of integrations. Further, there has been a gradual decrease both in exports and imports of Taiwan, followed by the plunge of FDI in 2015, great sign has been aware Taiwan of the significance of the regional economic integration. Especially the problem of export reliance on Chinese markets has prudentially needed TPP as a leading role to balance Taiwanese trade and investment ratio. However, for every plus there is a minus, while the high-standard TPP agreement seeks to remove NTBs and sensitive sectors, it will bring some impacts to domestic industries, also some potential opportunities for export engine stimulation, investment incentive, and industry upgrade. In order to display Taiwanese determination, regardless the possibility of Chinese factor, to participate in TPP agreement and second round negotiation, Taiwan needs to track the development of TPP, follow up the update of TPP, and is better to embark on regulatory revolution in advance of TPP agreement. A well-round preparation work is needed to lower the cost of industry adjustment for TPP reliance, especially as the paper has found that the TPP negotiation conclusion has lowered the high-standard claimed by the U.S. initially. Hence, the paper has articulated both outer and inner sides of barriers to join TPP as preparatory work. In outer part, Taiwan needs to preliminarily deal with the current negotiations with the US and Japan, then seek for the supports of other TPP countries which may allow a differentiation of negotiation conclusion. In inner part, where the fundamental resolution is, Taiwan has to undergo a self regulatory revolution, including Taiwanese edition of TAA, intensive safe guard measures, transparent regulatory coherence with GRP and RIA system, and defined policy with executive ability. The later Taiwan joins TPP, the higher price the domestic industries have to adjust the impact, and less added-value can be created among the TPP supply chains.

Topic Category 人文學 > 地理及區域研究
社會科學院 > 中國與亞太區域研究所
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  101. http://www.sice.oas.org/TPD/TPP/Negotiations/TPP_statement_Nov11_e.pdf (Last Visit Date: 2014/2/23)
  102. USTR, Additional Strike made at Tenth Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP)Round, 2011. Website: http://www.ustr.gov/about-us/press-office/press-releases/2011/december/additional-strides-made-tenth-trans-pacific-partn (Last Visit Date: 2014/2/10)
  103. USTR, Round 11: Melbourne, 2011. Website: http://www.ustr.gov/trade-agreements/free-trade-agreements/trans-pacific-partnership/round-11-melbourne (Last Visit Date: 2015/12/20)
  104. USTR, 2012. http://www.ustr.gov/trade-agreements/free-trade-agreements/trans-pacific-partnership/round-11-melbourne (Last Visit Date: 2014/2/10)
  105. USTR, Negotiation Brief Stakeholders at TPP Talk, 2012. Website:
  106. http://www.sice.oas.org/TPD/TPP/Negotiations/12round_e.pdf (Last Visit Date: 2015/12/21)
  107. USTR, Round 13: San Diego, 2012. Website: http://www.ustr.gov/trade-agreements/free-trade-agreements/trans-pacific-partnership/round-13-sandiego (Last Visit Date: 2014/2/10)
  108. USTR, Progress Continue in Trans-Pacific Partnership Talk, 2012. Website:
  109. http://www.sice.oas.org/TPD/TPP/Negotiations/Round14_e.pdf (Last Visit Date: 2014/12/10)
  110. USTR, Round 14: Leesburg, 2012. Website: http://www.ustr.gov/trade-agreements/free-trade-agreements/trans-pacific-partnership/round-14-leesburg (Last Visit Date: 2015/12/10)
  111. USTR, Round 15: Auckland, New Zealand- TPP Chief Negotiators Pleased to Report Continued Progress, 2012. Website:
  112. http://www.ustr.gov/trade-agreements/free-trade-agreements/trans-pacific-partnership/round-15-newzealand (Last Visit Date: 2014/2/10)
  113. USTR, Round 16: Singapore, 2013. http://www.ustr.gov/trade-agreements/free-trade-agreements/trans-pacific-partnership/round-16-singapore (Last Visit Date: 2015/12/10)
  114. USTR, Trans-Pacific Partnership Negotiations Maintain Strong Momentum, 2013. Website: http://www.sice.oas.org/TPD/TPP/Negotiations/Round17_concludes_e.pdf (Last Visit Date: 2015/12/10)
  115. USTR, Statement on the 18 Round of Trans-Pacific Partnership, 2013.
  116. http://www.sice.oas.org/TPD/TPP/Negotiations/Statement_Round18_e.pdf Website: (Last Visit Date: 2015/12/10)
  117. USTR, Join Press Statement TPP Minstrel Meeting Banda Seri Begawan, Brunei Darussalam, 2013. Website: http://www.sice.oas.org/TPD/TPP/Negotiations/Joint_Statement TPP_Min_Meeting_e.pdf (Last Visit Date: 2015/12/10)
  118. USTR, Statement of the Ministers and and Heads of Delegation for the Trans-Pacific Partnership Countries, 2013. Website:
  119. http://www.sice.oas.org/TPD/TPP/Negotiations/Statement_10.12.2013_e.pdf (Last Visit Date: 2015/12/10)
  120. USTR, Update on the Trans-Pacific Partnership Negotiations, 2015. Website: http://www.sice.oas.org/TPD/TPP/Negotiations/Reports/USTR_Update_on_the_negotiations_Aug_2015_e.pdf (Last Visit Date: 2015/12/10)
  121. USTR, Transcript of the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agrement Atlanta Ministerial Closing Press Conference, 2015. Website: https://ustr.gov/about-us/policy-offices/press-office/speechestranscripts/2015/october/transcript-trans-pacific (Last Visit Date: 2015/12/21)
  122. USTR, Trans-Pacific Partnership: Summary of U.S. Objectives. Website: https://ustr.gov/tpp/Summary-of-US-objectives# (Last Visit Date: 2015/12/21)
  123. USTR, Korus FTA Facts, 2008. Website: https://ustr.gov/archive/assets/Document_Library/Fact_Sheets/2008/asset_upload_file603_15193.pd f (Last Visit Date:2015/12/21)
  124. USTR: Executive office of the President-TPP Blog
  125. http://www.ustr.gov/trade-agreements/free-trade-agreements/trans-pacific-partnership/tpp-outreach-and-updates (Last Visit Date: 2015/12/22)
  126. USTR, 2014 National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade Barriers
  127. http://www.ustr.gov/sites/default/files/2013 NTE.pdf (Last Visit Date: 2015/12/22)
  128. USTR, Investor-State Dispute Settlement, 2015。Website: https://ustr.gov/about-us/policy-offices/press-office/fact-sheets/2015/march/investor-state-dispute-settlement-isds
  129. USTR, Summary of the Trans-Pacific Agreement, Website: www.sice. oas.org/TPD/TPP/ Negotiations/Summary_October_2015_e.pdf (Last Visit Date: 2015/12/22)
  130. WTO, Reference Paper, Negotiating Group on Basic Telecommunications, Job No. 2104, 1996. Website: https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/serv_e/19-bastl_e.htm (Last Visit Date: 2015/12/28)
  131. 二、著作與期刊論文(含會議論文)
  132. 中經院,「創造條件,參與TPP」系列專題(一)跨太平洋夥伴協定(TPP)的回顧、進展與展望:兼論其對亞太區域經濟整合之可能影響與我國之因應>,2013,頁3-6。
  133. 全毅,TPP對東亞區域經濟合作的影響:中美對話語權的爭奪,亞太經濟,第5期,2012,頁14。
  134. 邱俊彥、郭予榛、陳家豪,美國藥品提案對TPP談判進展之影響,經貿法訊第212期,2011。頁15-16。
  135. 杜興融,TPP影響下的中國區域發展戰略選擇,經濟論壇,2013,頁2。
  136. 李淳,名家觀點:法規調和與改革是加入TPP的必要課題,台灣經濟論衡,2013,頁41。
  137. 何力,TPP與中美日經濟一體化戰略,上海海關學院學報,2012,頁90。
  138. 周念利、湯婷婷,加入TPP對臺灣的政治經濟影響及大陸的對策,亞太經濟,第6期,2012。
  139. 范姜群暐,從電子支付機構管理條例展望國內電子金融服務發展,財金資訊季刊,2015,頁6-7。
  140. 周芷維、趙思博,試析TPP紡品議題採「從紗之後」原產地規則的可能,經貿法訊第142期,2013,頁19。
  141. 翁岳生,比較法學之理論與實踐,月旦法學雜誌,2003,頁8-9。
  142. 郭可為,TPP牽制國際貿易,資本市場,第7期,2013,頁35。
  143. 許博翔,TPP及RCEP對我國衝擊之量化分析,APEC通訊電子報,第159期,2012,頁6。參考網站:http://www.ctasc.org.tw/02publication/APEC-159-p06-07.pdf (最後瀏覽日:2016年1月7日)
  144. 許博翔,再探TPP對台灣產業的衝擊,兼論對中國大陸區域經濟的影響,APEC通訊電子報,第163期,2013,頁7。參考網站:http://www.ctasc.org.tw/02publication/APEC-163-p06-09.pdf (最後瀏覽日:2016年1月7日)
  145. 張顯超,台灣推動ECFA與TPP雙軌的法律框架思維,第七屆兩岸發展論壇——亞太戰略格局與兩岸關係發展論文集,2013,頁55。
  146. 黃國昌,法學實證方法研究初探,月旦法學雜誌,第142期,2009,頁143。
  147. 葉雲卿,淺談TPP協議與網路著作權,北美智權報,2015。參考網站:http://www.naipo.com/Portals/1/web_tw/Knowledge_Center/Industry_Economy/publish-467.htm (最後瀏覽日:2016年1月7日)
  148. 葉雲卿,TPPA之專利保護標準趨向嚴格:不利學名藥上市 將造成供給障礙,北美智權報,2014。參考網站:http://www.naipo.com/Portals/1/web_tw/Knowledge_Center/Infringement_Case/publish-84.htm (最後瀏覽日:2016年1月7日)
  149. 曾瑞乾,經建會法協中心:推動法規調適 邁向國際接軌,台灣經濟論衡,2013,頁30-31。
  150. 彭支偉、張柏偉,TPP和亞太自由貿易區的經濟效應與中國的對策,國際貿易問題,第4期,2013,頁83。
  151. 湯碧、林桂軍,跨太平洋夥伴關係協定對中國戰略的影響與中國的對策,社會科學研究,第6期,2012,頁83。
  152. 楊珍妮,「推進國際區域經濟論壇:加入TPP、RCEP對生技新藥產業之契機與挑戰」新藥研發國際競爭與智財策略(經濟部委託中華經濟研究院研究結果),2015,頁21。
  153. 盧孔標、王守真、丁攀,跨太平洋夥伴關係:主要分歧與前景分析,東南亞研究,第5期,2012,頁71。
  154. 頤靜,TPP對兩岸關係的影響芻議,亞太經濟,第5期,2012,頁137。
  155. 顏慶章,我國加入世界貿易組織之展望,台灣WTO新紀元:貿易之開放與防衛,2003,頁10。
  156. 魏可銘,我國農業貿易自由化之展望與因應,台灣WTO農業研究中心,2000,頁3。參考網站:http://www.arcwto.org.tw/content/column/column_c.asp?ID=26&IDS=5&typeid=5 (最後瀏覽日:2016年1月8日)
  157. 羅昌發,國際貿易法,元照,2010,頁387。
  158. 顧曼芹,會議報告「醫藥創新與專利策略」,2015推進國際區域經濟論壇:加入TPP, RCEP對生技新藥產業之契機與挑戰,2015。
  159. Inside U.S. Trade, Canada Tables Alternative Enforcement Mechanism in TPP Labor Chpter, 2013.
  160. Jeffrey J. Schott,跨太平洋夥伴關係協議:中國往何處去?(採訪中文稿) Peterson Institute For International Economics,2012。
  161. J. F. Hornbeck, Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) and Its Role in U.S. Trade Policy, Congressional Research Service, 2013, p7-8.
  162. Mark E. Manyin, Stephen Daggett, Ben Dolven, Susan V. Lawrence, Michael F. Martin, Ronald O’ Rourke, Bruce Vaughn, Pivot the Pacific? The Obama Administration’s “Rebalancing” Toward Asia, Congressional Research Service, 2012, P.6.
  163. Mary Jane Bolle, Trada Adjustment Assistance for Firm: Economic, Program, and Policy Issue, Congressional Research Service, 2015, p7.
  164. 三、新聞資料
  165. 中經院,引自Bilateral.org (2013/12/5)、Business Korea (2013/12/2),中、韓先後表可能加入TPP之意願。參考網站:http://www.wtocenter.org.tw/SmartKMS/do/www/readDoc?document_id=135131 (最後瀏覽日:2015年12月21日)
  166. 中國時報,TPP談判破局 美、日影響力下降,2015。參考網站:https://tw.news.yahoo.com/tpp談判破局-美-日影響力下降-215005630--finance.html (最後瀏覽日:2015年12月22日)
  167. 中央社,美學者:TPP未排斥台加入,2013。參考網站:
  168. http://www.cna.com.tw/news/acn/201312060049-1.aspx (最後瀏覽日:2014年2月23日)
  169. 中央社,台入TPP 白宮:符高標均歡迎,2014。參考網站: http://www.cna.com.tw/news/afe/201402280049-1.aspx (最後瀏覽日:2014年2月23日)
  170. 中央社,TIFA美提豬肉開放 經濟部:牛豬分離不變,2015。參考網站:http://www.cna.com.tw/news/firstnews/201510010372-1.aspx (最後瀏覽日:2016年1月7日)
  171. 中央社,台加強對日食安規範 日擬向WTO提告,2015。參考網站:http://www.cna.com.tw/news/firstnews/201504240345-1.aspx (最後瀏覽日:2015年12月22日)
  172. 中央社,台日投資協議 為FTA暖身,2011。參考網站:http://www.cna.com.tw/topic/Popular/2420-1/201109220089-1.aspx (最後瀏覽日:2016年1月7日)
  173. 中央社,立院通過台星經濟夥伴協定,2013。參考網站:
  174. http://www.cna.com.tw/news/firstnews/201312270016-1.aspx (最後瀏覽日:2015年12月22日)
  175. 中國時報,台星協定 最快明年2、3月生效,2013。參考網站:
  176. http://news.chinatimes.com/mainland/17180504/112013122800415.html (最後瀏覽日:2015年12月22日)
  177. 中時晚報,政府遊說美商會助臺入TPP,2014。參考網站:http://www.chinatimes.com/realtimenews/20140115003655-260407
  178. (最後瀏覽日:2015年12月21日)
  179. 中央社,盤點法規鬆綁 每月開跨部會會議,2014。參考網站:http://www.cna.com.tw/topic/popular/4247-4/201401030045-1.aspx (最後瀏覽日:2015年12月22日)
  180. 中央社,回應美商會 經建會:鬆綁法規,參考網站:http://www.cna.com.tw/news/afe/201401090180-1.aspx (最後瀏覽日:2014年2月20日)
  181. 中央廣播電台,加班工時上調 毛揆盼速萬成修法,2015。參考網站:http://news.rti.org.tw/news/detail/?recordId=202544 (最後瀏覽日:2016年1月8日)
  182. 中央社,閉鎖性公司法 正式上路,2015。參考網站:http://www.cna.com.tw/news/afe/201509040208-1.aspx (最後瀏覽日:2015年12月22日)
  183. 中國時報,19項金融業務,年底開放,2015。參考網站:http://www.chinatimes.com/newspapers/20150506000129-260205 (最後瀏覽日:2015年12月22日)
  184. 自由時報,要美助我入TPP,需要新論述,2014。參考網站:http://www.liberytimes.com.tw/2014/new/jan/15/today-p14-2.htm?Slots=BP
  185. (最後瀏覽日:2015年12月22日)
  186. 新華網,商務部:中方將認真研究入TPP利弊的可能性,2013。參考網站:http://news.xinhuanet.com/world/2013-05/31/c_124790090.htm (最後瀏覽日:2015年12月28日)
  187. 楊培侃,TPP最終關鍵議題,生物資料專屬保護權,自由時報,2015。參考網站:http://talk.ltn.com.tw/article/breakingnews/1472987 (最後瀏覽日:2015年12月11日)
  188. 聯合報,3風險 IMF下修全球GDP成長,2015。參考網站:http://udn.com/news/story/6811/1233463-3風險-IMF下修全球GDP成長 (最後瀏覽日:2015年12月9日)
  189. 聯合報,中經院:台灣 2015 年 GDP 成長率不保 1%,2015。參考網站:http://udn.com/news/story/7238/1251857-今年經濟成長率-保1不保 (最後瀏覽日:2015年12月5日)
  190. 聯合晚報,差最後一哩 TPP談判破局,2015。參考網站:http://udn.com/news/story/6811/1093000-差最後一哩-TPP談判破局 (最後瀏覽日:2015年12月22日)
  191. 聯合報,爭取進TPP 我落實「良好法規實務」,2014。
  192. http://udn.com/NEWS/FINANCE/FIN2/8428795.shtml (最後瀏覽日:2014年2月20日)
  193. 聯合新聞,童工起薪 比照基本工資,2015。參考網站:http://udn.com/news/story/7238/1153420-童工起薪-比照基本工資 (最後瀏覽日:2016年1月8日)
  194. Bloomberg Business, The Biggest Winner From TPP Trade Deal May be Vietnam, 2015. Website: www.blomberg.com/news/articles/2015-10-8-more-shoes-and-shrimp-less-china-reliance-for-vietnam-in-tpp (Last Visit Date: 2015/12/22)
  195. CNN, Trans-Pacific Pact: Negotiators Finally Get It Down, 2015. Website: http://money.cnn.com/2015/10/05/news/economy/transpacific-partnership-tpp/ (Last Visit Date: 2015/12/21)
  196. Eric Brandner, Trade Leak shows U.S.’s Weak Environmental Pitch, Politico, 2014. Website: http://www.politico.com/story/2014/02/trade-leak-shows-uss-weak-environmental-pitch-groups-say-103678 (Last Visit Date: 2015/12/22)
  197. Geneva Watch, Still No Breakthrough in Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement, 2014. Website: http://www.eggfarmers.ca/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/Geneva-Watch_February-25-2014.pdf (Last Visit Date: 2015/12/10)
  198. Geoff Dyer, Obama’s trip to Asia in 10 conversations, Financial Times, 2015. Website: http://blogs.ft.com/the-world/2014/04/obamas-trip-to-asia-in-10-conversations/
  199. Japan Today, Japan’s Agriculture, Fishery and Food Export Hits the Higest Record, 2015. Website: http://www.japantoday.com/category/business/view/japans-agricultural-fishery-and-food-exports-hit-record-high-in-2014 (Last Vist Date: 2015/12/28)
  200. Nekkei Asian Review, Vietnam Sets to Liberalize 20 Industries, 2015. Website: http://asia.nikkei.com/Politics-Economy/International-Relations/Vietnam-set-to-liberalize-20-service-industries (Last Visit Date: 2015/12/22)
  201. Tim Groser, New Zealand Welcomes TPP Negotiation, 2012. Website:
  202. http://www.sice.oas.org/TPD/TPP/Negotiations/XV_round_e.pdf (Last Visit Date: 2015/12/10)
  203. The Newyork Times, Trade Authority Bill Wins Final Approval in Senate, 2015. Website: http://www.nytimes.com/2015/06/25/business/trade-pact-senate-vote-obama.html (Last Visit Date: 2015/12/10)
  204. The Japan Times, Stage Set for TPP Ministerial Meeting, 2014. Website: http://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2014/02/21/business/stage-set-for-tpp-ministerial-meeting/#.Vicnl34rK02 (Last Visit Date: 2015/12/10)
  205. The Japan Times, Ministers continue TPP talks in Hawaii as clock ticks, 2015. Website: http://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2015/07/31/business/ministers-continue-tpp-talks-hawaii-clock-ticks/#.Vic6pn4rK00 (Last Visit Date: 2015/12/10)
  206. The Japan Times, After the failure of latency delays to complete agreements in the Pacific trade, 2015. Website: http://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2015/10/05/business/late-delay-failure-finalize-deal-pacific-trade-talks/#.VidImH4rK00 (Last Visit Date: 2015/12/21)
  207. The Vancouver Sun, Tuesday October 2, Welcome Tiawan to TPP: Canada shold support the island’s inclusion to trade deal, 2015. Website: http://www.vancouversun.com/opinion/letters/canada+should+support+island+inclusion+trade+deal/11450544/story.html?__lsa=2e27-9a1fhttp://www.vancouversun.com/opinion/letters/canada+should+support+island+inclusion+trade+deal/11450544/story.html?__lsa=2e27-9a1f (Last Visit Date: 2015/12/10)
  208. The Washiton Post , Harold Meyerson: Free trade and the loss of U.S. jobs, 2014. Website: http://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/harold-meyerson-free-trade-and-the-loss-of-us-jobs/2014/01/14/894f5750-7d59-11e3-93c1-0e888170b723_story.html (Last Visit Date: 2015/12/20)
  209. The Washington Post, Budget and the Tax: the Senate is Poised to Pass TPA, and the next is TAA, 2015. Website: https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/powerpost/wp/2015/06/24/budget-and-tax-the-senate-is-poised-to-pass-tpa-and-taa-is-next/ (Last Visit Date: 2015/12/22)
  210. The Wall Street Journal, Why You May Soon See More Goods Lable ‘Made in Vietnam’, 2015.
  211. Website: http://www.wsj.com/articles/why-you-may-soon-see-more-goods-labeled-made-in-vietnam-1445211849 (Last Visit Date: 2015/12/21)
  212. The Wall Street Journal, TPP Deal Expected to Shake Up Japan’s Agriculture Sector, 2015. Website: http://blogs.wsj.com/japanrealtime/2015/10/06/tpp-deal-expected-to-shake-up-japans-agriculture-sector/ (Last Visit Date: 2015/12/22)
  213. 四、國際組織、非營利組織或人民團體報告
  214. 台北市美國商會,臺北市美國商會2014商業景氣調查(2014 Business Climate Survey):企業認為臺灣有良好的商業環境,但仍有進步空間,2014,頁1。
  215. 台北市日本工商會,台北市日本工商會對台灣政府政策建言書,2014,頁66-69。
  216. Citizens Trade Campaign, Leaked U.S. Proposal for TBT Annexes on Medical Devices, Pharmaceutical Products and Cometic Products, 2011. Website: http://www.citizenstrade.org/ctc/blog/2011/10/22/leaked-trans-pacific-fta-texts-reveal-u-s-undermining-access-to-medicine/ (Last Visit Date: 2016/1/7)
  217. Citizen Trade, Leaked Article X.7 of TPP Regulatory Coherence Charpter, ,Leaked Text for the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) Regulatory Coherence, 2011. Website: http://www.citizenstrade.org/ctc/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/TransPacificRegulatoryCoherence.pdf (Last Visit Date:2016/1/7)
  218. Citizen Trade, Leaked Article X.1.2. of TPP Regulatory Coherence Charpter, ,Leaked Text for the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) Regulatory Coherence, 2011. Website: http://www.citizenstrade.org/ctc/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/TransPacificRegulatoryCoherence.pdf (Last Visit Date:2016/1/7)
  219. Citizen Trade, Leaked Article X.1.1. of TPP Regulatory Coherence Charpter, ,Leaked Text for the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) Regulatory Coherence, 2011. Website: http://www.citizenstrade.org/ctc/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/TransPacificRegulatoryCoherence.pdf (Last Visit Date:2016/1/7)
  220. Citizen Trade, Leaked Article X.3.1. of TPP Regulatory Coherence Charpter, ,Leaked Text for the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) Regulatory Coherence, 2011. Website: http://www.citizenstrade.org/ctc/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/TransPacificRegulatoryCoherence.pdf (Last Visit Date:2016/1/7)
  221. Center for Policy Analisis on Trade and Health, 2012 Health Advicates Assert the Curve-out; US weak TPP Tabacco Proposal, 2012. Website: http://www.cpath.org/id49.html (Last Visit Date: 2015/12/21)
  222. Citizen Trade Campaign¸ Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP)Regulatory Coherence, 2011. Website: http://www.citizenstrade.org/ctc/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/TransPacificRegulatoryCoherence.pdf (Last Visit Date: 2015/12/21)
  223. Canadian Generic Pharmaceutical Association, Joint Position Statement on the Trans Pacific Partnership, 2012. Website: http://www.canadiangenerics.ca/en/advocacy/trade_negotiation_i.asp (Last Visit Date: 2015/12/21)
  224. Public Citizen, “Breifing Memo: Analysis of Leaked U.S. Paper on Eliminating Patent Pre-Grant Opposition,” 2011. Website: http://www.citizen.org/analysis-of-leaked-US-paper-on-eliminating-patent-pre-grant-opposition (Last Visit Date: 2015/12/21)
  225. The American Chamber of Commerce in Taipei, Taiwan White Paper, 2015, p.16-19.
  226. WikiLeaks, Secret Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP) IP Charpter, 2011. Website: https://wikileaks.org/tpp/ (Last Visit Date: 2015/12/21)
  227. Wikileaks, Secret Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP)Environment Consolidate Text, 2011. Website: https://wikileaks.org/tpp-enviro/ (Last Visit Date: 2015/12/21)
  228. 五、其他網路資料
  229. Eric Eldred v. Janet Reno 案中Hal R. Varian的書面證詞,1999。參考網站:http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/openlaw/eldredvashcroft/cyber/varian.pdf (最後瀏覽日:2015年12月22日)