Title

互聯網與政治參與:中國大陸之研究

Translated Titles

Internet and Political Participation: A Case Study of China

Authors

殷俊

Key Words

政治參與 ; 互聯網 ; 媒體 ; 中國大陸 ; 政治發展 ; Political Participation ; China ; Political Development ; Media ; Internet

PublicationName

中山大學中國與亞太區域研究所學位論文

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

2016年

Academic Degree Category

博士

Advisor

顧長永

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

互聯網對於政治參與的影響,是互聯網研究領域一個重要的議題。以往的研究,有著互聯網促進/擴大或強化/抑制政治參與的不同結論。本研究之目的,在分析中國大陸之互聯網如何藉由滿足不斷擴大之政治參與需求,而達到擴大政治參與範圍、進而影響政治發展之效果。通過對擁有最多互聯網使用者之中國大陸的分析,可以深入認識政治情境、互聯網和政治參與之間的互動關係。 本研究採用「政治-媒體-政治」的分析路徑,將政治和作為媒體/技術工具的互聯網納入一個互動架構之內。具體而言,就是將中國大陸互聯網與政治參與之關係放在特定的政治情境——擴大的政治參與需求和相對滯後的制度空間——之下,從互聯網與政治認同、互聯網與社會運動以及互聯網與常規政治三個層面分析互聯網如何在特定政治情境下影響政治參與之範圍、形式和結果。通過研究發現,互聯網對政治參與之影響並非完全由技術決定,卻同樣取決於政治、社會、經濟、文化背景。在中國大陸,互聯網通過對部分群體政治賦權、擴大政治參與範圍和拓展政治參與形式,顯著影響中國大陸的政治參與,亦間接影響其政治發展。具體而言,互聯網影響政治參與,在傳播角度是通過折射既有的政治認同分化,在行動角度激活既有的政治、經濟、社會資源或制度。因此,互聯網對政治參與的影響,不僅有擴大、促進政治參與的一面,又有反映現實政治約束的一面。

English Abstract

It is a key issue in the area of Internet studies that whether the Internet would expand/promote political participation, or inhibit it, or just strengthen the existing political structure. The purpose of this study is to analyze how the Internet could satisfy the expanding demanding of political participation in China, and thus expand the extent of political participation, and influence political development. By this study, with the target of a country with the largest number of Internet users, it is possible to understand the interactive relation among political context, Internet and political participation. In this study the analytic approach of “politics-media-politics” is applied, and the Internet, as a media/technology tool, is included in an interactive framework. In the political context of China, with expanding demanding of political participation and stagnant political institution, this study analyzes how the Internet influences the extent, form and results of political participation in three dimensions: Internet and political identity, Internet and social movements, and Internet and conventional politics. It is found that the influence of Internet on political participation is not only decided by technologies, buy also by the context of politics, society, economy and culture. The Internet in China has empowered politically to some groups, expanded the extent and form of political participation, and thus influenced the political participation significantly, and at last influenced the political development indirectly. In particular, the Internet could reflect the existing diversification of political identity, activate off-line political, economic and social resources, or institutions. So the Internet could expand and promote political participation, but also is constrained by existing politics.

Topic Category 人文學 > 地理及區域研究
社會科學院 > 中國與亞太區域研究所
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  106. 趙鼎新,2012。《社會與政治運動講義》。北京:社會科學文獻出版社。
  107. 鄧小平,1993。《鄧小平文選(第三卷)》。北京:人民出版社。
  108. 蔡前,2009。《以互聯網為媒介的集體行動研究》。南昌:江西人民出版社。
  109. 鄭永年,2004。《胡溫新政:中國改革的新動力》。新加坡:八方文化創作室。
  110. (二)專書譯著
  111. 大衛•格雷伯(David Graeber)著,湯淑君等譯,2014。《為什麼上街頭?新公民運動的歷史、危機和進程》(The Democracy Project: A History, A Crisis, A Movement)。台北:商周出版。
  112. 休•伊威特(Huge Hewitt)著,陳柏安、江今葉譯,2007。《部落格:改變世界的資訊革命》。臺北:五南圖書。
  113. 吉姆•麥克蓋根(Jim McGuigan)著,桂萬先譯,2001。《文化民粹主義》(Cultural Populism)。南京:南京大學出版社。
  114. 帕特南(Robert D.Putnam)著,劉波等譯,2011。《獨自打保齡球:美國社區的衰落與復興》(Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community)。北京:北京大學出版社。
  115. 詹姆斯•卡倫(James Curran)著,史安斌、董關鵬譯,2007。《媒體與權力》。北京:清華大學出版社。
  116. (三)專書論文
  117. 陳健民,2005。<集體行動與社會行動>,何強星、呂志偉編,《社會學新探》。香港:McGraw Hill,2005年。頁191-210。
  118. 孫立平,2008。〈轉型期中國社會結構的變遷及對國家-社會關係的影響〉,高丙中、袁瑞軍編,《中國公民社會發展藍皮書》。北京:北京大學出版社。頁101-116。
  119. (四)期刊論文
  120. 王小章、馮婷,2014/5。〈集體主義時代和個體化時代的集體行動〉,《山東社會科學》,2014年第5期,頁45-51。
  121. 文宏,2013/10。〈網絡反腐:實證案例與内在機理〉,《社會科學》,2013年第10期,頁17-27。
  122. 文宏、黃之,2006/1。〈網絡反腐中的政府回應及其影響因素——基於170個網絡反腐案例的實證分析〉,《公共管理學報》,2006年第1期,頁21-30。
  123. 仝宗輝,2012/12。〈高層出面與烏坎轉機:抗爭政治中的高層政府行為初探〉,《中國非盈利評論》,第10期,頁90-98。
  124. 朱蘇力,2004/10。〈公共知識分子的社會建構〉,《天涯》,2004年第5期,頁161-163。
  125. 宋為、佘廉,2011/2。〈 新時期我國腐敗現象與網絡反腐探討〉,《 政治學研究》,2011年第2期,頁84-90。
  126. 李文,2015/7。〈21 世紀以來中國社會結構演變的新趨勢和新挑戰〉,《江西社會科學》,2015年第7期,頁222-230。
  127. 郁建興,2011/12。〈中國公民社會與治理的研究〉,《二十一世紀》,總第128期,頁65-74。
  128. 吳毅,2007/5。〈「權力-利益的結構之網」與農民群體性利益的表達困境〉,《社會學研究》,2007年第5期,頁21-45。
  129. 殷俊,2015/1。〈互聯網與政治參與在台灣之發展〉,《當代中國政治研究報告》,第13輯,頁300-314。
  130. 殷俊,2015/3。〈新興民主政體中政黨體系的制度化:台灣、韓國、菲律賓之比較〉,《亞洲研究》,第70期,頁163-190.
  131. 殷俊,2015/6。〈從國家-社會關係角度分析中國大陸的農村群體性事件:以烏坎事件為例〉,《展望與探索》,第13卷第6期,頁84-102。
  132. 唐傑,2006/12。〈互聯網對社會抗議的影響研究〉,《社會科學輯刊》,2007年第6期,頁63-66。
  133. 陳來,2003。〈儒家思想傳統與公共知識分子——兼論現代中國知識分子的公共性與專業性〉,《知識分子論叢》,第 1 輯,頁1-9。
  134. 張雷、劉曙光,2008/2。〈論網絡政治動員〉,《東北大學學報(社會科學版)》,第10卷第2期,頁145-159。
  135. 張錚、淩爭,2015/2。〈網絡反腐:意義問題與改進路徑——基於網絡反腐流程的分析〉,《社會主義研究》,2015年第2期,頁70-76。
  136. 張志安、賈佳,2011/6。〈中國政務微博研究報告〉,《新聞記者》,2011年第6期,頁34-49。
  137. 孫瑋,2007/3。 〈「我們是誰」: 大眾媒介對於新社會運動的集體認同感建構——廈門 PX 專案事件大眾媒介報導的個案研究〉,《新聞大學》,2007年第3期,頁25-33。
  138. 黃東益、蕭乃沂、陳敦源,2003/6。〈網際網路時代公民直接參與的機會與挑—台北市「市長電子信箱」的個案研究〉,《東吳政治學報》,第17期,頁121-151。
  139. 黃榮貴,2010/2。〈互聯網與抗爭行動:理論模型、中國經驗及研究進展〉,《社會》,20120年第2期,頁178-197。
  140. 黃衛平、陳家喜,2008/6。〈城市運動中的地方政府與社會:基於N區業主維權案例的分析〉,《東南學術》,2008年第6期,頁59-66。
  141. 楊國斌,2009/8。〈互聯網與中國社會〉,《二十一世紀評論》,第114期,頁14-25。
  142. 熊光清,2014/2。〈中國的網路監督與腐敗治理——基於公民參與的角度〉,《社會科學研究》,42-46。
  143. 鄒樹斌、唐娟、黃衛平,2004/2。〈2003年人大代表競選的群體效應:北京與深圳比較〉,《馬克思主義與現實》,2004年第2期,頁35-43。
  144. 謝穎、林芬,2016/1。〈抗爭性政治中的群體差異與資源借用:中產抗爭與農民抗爭的個案比較〉, 《社會學評論 》,第4卷第1期,頁34-48.
  145. 蔡文軒,2012/12。〈2011年中國大陸基層人大選舉之觀察〉,《展望與探索》,第9卷第12期,頁18-22。
  146. (五)學位論文
  147. (六)報紙
  148. 《人民日報》,2007/6/11。〈新社會階層:身影日益清晰〉,版10。
  149. 李從軍,2013/9/4。〈牢牢掌握輿論工作主動權〉,《人民日報》,版4。
  150. 《南方週末》,2007/12/26。〈廈門人:以勇氣和理性燭照未來〉,版A1。
  151. 《南方都市報》,2003/4/25。<被收容者孫志剛之死>,版1。
  152. 范承鋼等,2013/9/2。〈大V近黃昏?〉,《南方週末》,版A1。
  153. 袁舟,1998/8/4。〈網上怒吼〉,《聯合早報》,版6。
  154. 張天藩,2011/10/30。〈「公知」已成罵人詞匯〉,《南方都市報》。
  155. 張潔平, 2011/11/26。〈呼嘯村莊:烏坎的死亡與反抗〉,《陽光時務》,版1-4。
  156. 新華社, 2011/2/14。〈趙啟正:中國不會發生「茉莉花革命」〉,《文匯報》(香港),版A14。
  157. 戴均良,2015/9。〈充分發揮四大新社會階層積極作用〉,《瞭望》,2015年第34期,頁38-40。
  158. (七)網際網路
  159. 人民日報,2008/4/18。〈把愛國熱情化為報國之志〉,
  160. ——2008/4/19。〈把自己的事辦好〉,
  161. ——2008/4/20。〈愛國主義如何更有力〉,< http://news.xinhuanet.com/world/2008-04/20/content_8012643.htm>。
  162. ——2015/5/28。〈吳淦被依法刑拘,揭開「超級低俗屠夫」真面目〉,
  163. ——2015/10/30。《2015第三季度人民日報•政務指數微博影響力報告》,
  164. 王學進,2014/9/5。〈公安不能動輒拘留網絡舉報者〉,新浪網,
  165. 中國互聯網絡信息中心(CNNIC),1997/10。〈第一次中國互聯網絡發展統計報告〉,
  166. ——2001/1。〈第五次中國互聯網絡發展統計報告〉,
  167. ——2006/1。〈第十七次中國互聯網絡發展統計報告〉,
  168. ——2015/1。《第35次中國互聯網絡發展狀況統計報告》。
  169. 中國政府網,2016/1/20。〈中國基尼係數七連降貧富差距繼續縮小〉,
  170. 中國新聞網,2009/6/25。<影響中國之60大事件:中國接入互聯網>,
  171. 公安部網站,2010/4/1。〈公安機關開展社會治安整治行動>,
  172. 艾已晴,2013/12/6。〈潘石屹:我為什麼搞pm2.5運動〉,《中國保險報》,
  173. 吳慶寶,2013/7/24。〈死磕派律師更要維護法治社會〉,《環球時報》,
  174. 南方人物週刊,2004/2。〈影響中國公共知識分子50人〉,2004年第7期
  175. 南方都市報,2009/10/12。〈周久耕獲刑並非網絡監督的勝利〉,
  176. 新浪網,2003/5/25.《資料:1999年5月9日胡錦濤就我駐南使館遭襲擊發表講話》,
  177. 新華社,2008/4/17。〈將愛國熱情傾注到發展行動中去〉,
  178. 新華網,2002/11/17。〈江澤民同志在黨的十六大上所作報告全文〉,
  179. ——2009/10/10。《原南京江寧區房產局長周久耕犯受賄罪一審被判刑11年》,
  180. ——2013/11/15。〈中共中央關於全面深化改革若干重大問題的決定〉,
  181. 曾建元,2014/4。〈由群眾走向公民:臺灣新公民運動的衝擊與影響〉,《兩岸公評網》,
  182. 搜狐網,2012。〈是誰搞臭了公知?〉,
  183. 檢察日報,2012/9/21。〈27天:微笑表哥落馬輿情還原〉,
  184. 單仁平,2014/5/8。〈「死磕派」律師不可政治上自我高估〉,《環球時報》,
  185. 曹海麗,2003/6/1。〈羅昌平:我爲什麽實名舉報〉,《紐約時報中文網》 (2013年6月1日),
  186. 羅昌平,2013。《打鐵記》,
  187. 鳳凰網,2012。<解讀中國公知症候群>,
  188. 網易科技,2014/4/11。<活躍度下降,新浪微博只有5%用戶發內容>,
  189. 二、英文部分
  190. (一)專書
  191. Abbot, Jason P., 2004. The Political Economy of the Internet in Asia: Digital Divides, Economic Competitiveness and Security Challenges. Westport: Prague.
  192. Anduiza , Eva, Michael J. Jensen & Laia Jorba, 2012. Digital Media and Political Engagement Worldwide: A Comparative Study. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  193. Campbell, Angus, Gerald Gurin & W. E. Miller, 1954. The Voter Decides. Oxford: Row, Peterson and Co.
  194. Lagerkvist, Joan, 2007. The Internet in China: Unblocking and Containing the Public Sphere. Lund: Lund University.
  195. Lagerkvist, Joan, 2010. After the Internet, Before Democracy. New York: Peter Lang.
  196. Lee, F. L., Lee, C. C., Yao, M. Z., Chang, T. K., Lin, F. J., & Shen, C. F., 2013. Communication, Public Opinion, and Globalization in Urban China. London, England: Routledge.
  197. Margolis, Michael & David Resnick, 2000. Political as Usual: The Cyberspace “Revolution”. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
  198. Milbrath, Lester W. & M. L. Goel, 1977. Political Participation: How and Why Do People Get Involved in Politics? Lanham: University Press of America.
  199. Miller, Daniel & Don Slater, 2000. The Internet: An Ethnographic Approach. New York: Berg.
  200. Mossberger, Karen, Caroline J. Tolbert, & Ramona S. McNeal, 2008. Digital Citizenship: The Internet, Society, and participation. Cambridge: MIT Press.
  201. Tilly, Charles, & Lesley J. Wood, 2012. Social Movements 1768-2012. Routledge.
  202. (二)專書論文
  203. Carpini, MX Delli, 2004. "Mediating democratic engagement: The impact of communications on citizens’ involvement in political and civic life," in Lynda Lee Kaid, ed., Handbook of Political Communication Research. London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. pp. 357-394.
  204. Cornfield, Michael, 2003. “Adding in the Net: Making Citizenship Count in the Digital Age,” in D. M. Anderson & M. Cornfield, eds., The Civic Web: Online Politics and Democratic Values. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 97-112.
  205. Grossberg, Lawrence, 2009. “Cultural Studies: What’s in a Name (One More Time)”, in Rhoda Hammer & Douglas Kellner, eds., Media/Cultural Studies. New York: Peter Lang. pp.25-48.
  206. Laer, Jeroen Van & Peter Van Aelst, 2010. “Cyber-Protest and Civil Society: The Internet and Action Repertoires in Social Movements,” in Yvonne Jewkes & Majid Yar, eds., Handbook of Internet Crime. New York: Routledge. pp. 230-254.
  207. (三)期刊論文
  208. Boyd, Andrew, 2003. “The Web Rewires the Movement,” The Nation, Vol. 277, No. 4, pp. 13-18.
  209. Hung, Chin-fu, 2003/12. “Public Discourse and ‘Virtual’ Political Participation in the PRC: The Impact of the Internet,” Issues & Studies, Vol.39, No.4, pp. 1-38.
  210. Hung, Chin-fu, 2005/9. “The Interactions between Internet Entrepreneurs and the Chinese Authorities: Possible Implications for Civil Society,” Issues & Studies, Vol.41, No.3, pp. 145-180.
  211. Hung, Chin-fu, 2006/12. “The Politics of Cyber Participation in the PRC: The Implications of Contingency for the Awareness of Citizens’ Rights,” Issues & Studies, Vol. 42, No. 4, pp. 137-173.
  212. Hung, Chin-fu, 2010/12. “China’s Propaganda in the Information Age: The Internet Commentators in the Weng’an Incident,” Issues & Studies, Vol. 46, No. 4, pp. 149-180.
  213. Hung, Chin-fu, 2013/4. “Citizen Journalism and Cyberactivism in China''s Anti-PX Plant in Xiamen, 2007–2009,” China: An International Journal, Vol. 11, No. 1, pp. 40-54.
  214. Jennings, M. Kent & Vicki Zeitner, 2003/Fall. “Internet Use and Civic Engagement: A Longitudinal Analysis,” Public Opinion Quarterly, Vol. 67, No. 3, pp. 311-334.
  215. Lagerkvist, Johan, 2010. After the Internet, Before Democracy. New York: Peter Lang.
  216. Postmes, Tom & Suzanne Brunsting, 2002/8. “Collective Action in the Age of Internet,” Social Science Computer Review, Vol. 20, No. 3, pp. 290-301.
  217. Putnam, Robert D, 1996/3. “Who Killed Civic American?” The American Prospect, No. 24, pp. 66-73.
  218. Qiu, Jack Linchuan, 1999/Winter. “Virtual Censorship in China: Keeping the Gate Between the Cyberspace,” International Review of Communications Law and Policy, No. 4, pp. 1-25.
  219. (四)網際網路
  220. Joseph, Sara, 2011/6/2. “Social Media, Human Rights and Political Change”, Social Science Research Network, .
  221. Wolfsfeld, Gadi, 2013/8/19. “The Politics-Media-Politics Principle: Towards a More Comprehensive Approach to Political Communication”, Social Science Research Network,