Title

應用視覺辨識與模糊方法設計之車輛側向控制系統

Translated Titles

A vision-based fuzzy control design for vehicle lateral system

DOI

10.6827/NFU.2015.00045

Authors

丁偉哲

Key Words

側向控制 ; 自行車模式 ; 系統鑑別 ; 視覺辨識 ; 線性矩陣不等式 ; lateral control ; bicycle model ; system identification ; image processing ; Linear Matrix Inequalities

PublicationName

虎尾科技大學電機工程研究所學位論文

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

2015年

Academic Degree Category

碩士

Advisor

丁振聲

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

本文旨在應用視覺辨識與模糊方法設計車輛的側向控制系統。車輛側向控制系統主要運用在車道維持上,將攝影機獲取的畫面經過邊緣檢測與座標轉換得到實際中的車道中心偏移量。當車輛偏離車道線時,側向控制器主動介入轉向的控制,確保車輛穩定的行駛於車道中心。首先是建立原型車的數學模式,原型車結合視訊開發平台、數位控制器和無線傳輸模組,控制其行進於模擬車道,收集系統的動態資料,進行側向系統模式鑑別,根據所得到的三種區域的動態模式,應用模糊推論整合成全域的數學模式。其次進行控制法則設計,控制系統是以線性矩陣不等性的方法求出穩態控制的解,使得在速度改變的情況下,原型車能完成自動導向的控制操作。相較於先前研究,本文是以影像處理的方法量測車輛偏移車道中心之位移與速度等動態資料,用之於模式鑑別,使得鑑別後的模式更通用於實際的控制情形,最後由實驗結果比較狀態回授控制與傳統PD控制。

English Abstract

In this thesis, a vision-based fuzzy lateral control system is invesitagted. The objective of vehicle lateral control is to maintain vehicle traveling along the center of lane for the driving safety. When a vehicle deviates from the lane mark, the lateral controller automatically intervenes in the control of direction change, ensuring that the vehicle drives stably along the central of a lane. To this end, the lane images are captured by the camera installed on the vehicle. The actual deviation can be obtained by the image processing. The first step is to build the mathematical model of the experimental vehicle, which is composed of a visual development platform, digital controller and a wireless transmission module. In the experimental process, the prototype is controlled to move in simulated lanes while collecting the dynamic informations for system indentification. Integrated with the three local models, which are obtained by varying the speed of the vehicle, a set of fuzzy implications are implemented to represent the global system dynamics. Based on this model, the control system is analyzed and synthesized by means of linear matrix inequality. The obtained solution ensures the stable control and operation of automatic navigation under changing velocity. Compared with previous work, the proposed study used image processing to measure displacement and velocity involved in vehicle deviation, making the identified model more applicable to actual control situations. At last, the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme is validated by the expermental results and comparisons with the conventional PD control.

Topic Category 電機資訊學院 > 電機工程研究所
工程學 > 電機工程
Reference
  1. [2] R.E. Benton and D. Smith, “A static-output-feedback design procedure for robust emergency lateral control of a highway vehicle,” IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 618-623, 2005.
    連結:
  2. [3] S.B. Choi, “The design of a look-down feedback adaptive controller for the lateral control of front-wheel-steering autonomous highway vehicles,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 49, no.6, pp. 2257-2269, 2000.
    連結:
  3. [4] D.E. Smith and J.M. Starkey, “The effects of model complexity on the performance of automated vehicle steering controllers: model development, validation and comparison,” Vehicle System Dynamice, vol.24, pp. 163-181, 1995.
    連結:
  4. [5] J.I. Hernandaz and C.Y. Kuo, “Lateral control of higher order nonlinear vehicle model in emergency maneuvers using absolute positioning GPS and magnetic markers,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 372-384, March 2004.
    連結:
  5. [6] Wu, J., Wang, Q., Wei, X., Tang, H., “Studies on improving vehicle handling and lane keeping performance of closed-loop driver-vehicle system with integrated chassis control,” Mathematics and Computers in Simulation 80, 2297-2308 , 2010.
    連結:
  6. [7] Cerone, V., Milanese, M., Regruto, D., “Combined automatic lane-keeping and driver’s steering through a 2-DOF control strategy,” 2009,IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology 17(1), 135-142.
    連結:
  7. [8] J.I. Hernandaz and C.Y. Kuo, “Lateral control of higher order nonlinear vehicle model in emergency maneuvers using absolute positioning GPS and magnetic markers,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 372-384, March 2004.
    連結:
  8. [9] Tanaka, K. and Wang, H.O., “Fuzzy Control Systems Design and Analysis: A Linear Matrix Inequality Approach,” Wiley, New York, 2001.
    連結:
  9. [10] Hajjaji, A. and Bentalba, S., “Fuzzy path tracking control for automatic steering of vehicles,” Robotics and Autonomous Systems 43, 203-213, 2003.
    連結:
  10. [11] D.E. Smith and J.M. Starkey, “The effects of model complexity on the performance of automated vehicle steering controllers: model development, validation and comparison,” Vehicle System Dynamice, vol.24, pp. 163-181, 1995.
    連結:
  11. [13] John , “A Computational Approach To Edge Detection,” Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, IEEE Transactions on,Vol.8 , pp. 679 – 698, Nov. 1986.
    連結:
  12. [14] J.W. Lee, Sung-Uk Choi, Young-Jin Lee and K. S. Lee, “A Study on Recognition of Road Lane and Movement of Vehicles using Vision System,” SICE 2001. Proceedings of the 40th SICE Annual Conference. International Session Papers , pp. 38 – 41, 2001.
    連結:
  13. [16] J.I. Hernandaz and C.Y. Kuo, “Lateral control of higher order nonlinear vehicle model in emergency maneuvers using absolute positioning GPS and magnetic markers,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 372-384, March 2004
    連結:
  14. [17] C.S. Ting, C.S. Liu, “ An Adaptive Fuzzy-Neural Control Approach for Vehicle Lateral Dynamics,” Systems and Informatics (ICSAI), 2012 International Conference on, pp. 66 – 70, 19-20 May 2012.
    連結:
  15. [18] K. Tanaka and M. Sugeno, ‘‘Stability Analysis and Design of Fuzzy Control Systems,’’ Fuzzy Sets Syst., Vol. 45, No. 2, pp. 135– 156 (1992).
    連結:
  16. [21] 洪昌嘉,「應用T-S模糊模式設計之車輛側向系統」,碩士論文,國立虎尾科技大學電機工程研究所,2012年7月。
    連結:
  17. [22] 戴凱易,「以視覺辨識設計之車輛側向控制系統」,碩士論文,國立虎尾科技大學電機工程研究所,2014年7月。
    連結:
  18. [23] L. Cai, Rad and W. Lok , “A Genetic Fuzzy Controller for Vehicle Automatic Steering Control,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 56, vo. 2, March 2007.
    連結:
  19. [24] Mohammad Biglarbegian, William Melek , Farid Golnaraghi, “Design of a Novel Fuzzy Controller to Enhance Stability of Vehicles,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, pp.410-414,, June 2007.
    連結:
  20. [25] D.E. Smith and J.M. Starkey, “The effects of model complexity on the performance of automated vehicle steering controllers: controller development and evaluation,”
    連結:
  21. Vehicle Syst Dyn, vol.23, pp.627-645, 1994.
    連結:
  22. [27] T.H. Chang, C.S. Hsu, C. Wang, and L.K. Yang , “Onboard Measurement and Warning Module for Irregular Vehicle Behavior,” IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, vol. 9, no. 3, September 2008.
    連結:
  23. [29] R.B Wang and R.H Zhang, “Based on Digital Image Lane Edge Detection and Tracking under Structure Environment for Autonomous Vehicle,” Automation and Logistics, 2007 IEEE International Conference on, pp. 1310 – 1314, 18-21 Aug. 2007.
    連結:
  24. [30]Takero Hongo, Hideo Arakawa, Gunji Sugimoto, Koichi Tange and Yuzo Yamamoto, “An Automatic Guidance System of a Self-Controlled Vehicle,”IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 34 , pp.5-10, Feb 1987.
    連結:
  25. [31]Khalid Isa, “Experimental Studies on Dynamics Performance of Lateral and Longitudinal Control for Autonomous Vehicle Using Image Processing,”Computer and Information Technology Workshops, 2008. CIT Workshops 2008. IEEE 8th International Conference on, pp. 411 – 416,8-11 July 2008.
    連結:
  26. [32] R.Wang , Y.C. Xu , Libin , Yufan Zhao , “A Vision-Based Road Edge Detection Algorithm,” Intelligent Vehicle Symposium, 2002. IEEE, vol. 1, pp. 141 – 147,17-21 June 2002.
    連結:
  27. [33] Jong I1 Bae, Fumio Harashima , Ju Yong Choi ,Chang Sup Kim, Sinpyo Hong and Man Hyung Lee, “Vision Based Lateral Control by Yaw Rate Feedback,” Industrial Electronics Society, 2001. IECON '01. The 27th Annual Conference of the IEEE, vol.3, pp. 2135 - 2138,2001.
    連結:
  28. [34] B.F.Wu, W.H. Chen, C.W.Chang, C.J. Chen and M.W. Chung , “A New Vehicle Detection with Distance Estimation for Lane Change Warning Systems,” Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, 2007 IEEE, pp. 698-703,13-15 June 2007.
    連結:
  29. [37] H. O. Wang, K. Tanaka, and M. F. Griffin, ‘‘An Approach to Fuzzy Control of Nonlinear Systems: Stability and Design Issues,’’ IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems, vol.4, no. 1, pp. 14-23, 1996.
    連結:
  30. [38] M. Sugeno and G. T. Kang, ‘‘Fuzzy Modeling and Control of Multilayer Incinera-tor,’’ Fuzzy Sets Syst., No. 18, pp. 329– 346, (1986).
    連結:
  31. [39] H. O. Wang, K. Tanaka, and M. F. Griffin, ‘‘Parallel Distributed Compensation of Nonlinear Systems by Takagi-Sugeno Fuzzy Model,’’ Proc. FUZZIEEE/IFES’95, pp. 531– 538, 1995
    連結:
  32. [41] K. Tanaka, T. Taniguchi, and H. O. Wang, ‘‘Model-Based Fuzzy Control of TORA System: Fuzzy Regulator and Fuzzy Observer Design via LMIs that Represent Decay Rate, Disturbance Rejection, Robustness, Optimality,’’ Seventh IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems, Alaska,pp. 313– 318,1998,.
    連結:
  33. [42] K. Tanaka, T. Ikeda, and H. O. Wang, ‘‘Fuzzy Regulators and Fuzzy Observers,’’IEEE Trans. Fuzzy Syst., Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 250– 265 (1998).
    連結:
  34. [43] K. Tanaka and M. Sano, ‘‘Fuzzy Stability Criterion of a Class of Nonlinear Systems,’’Inform. Sci., Vol. 71, Nos. 1 & 2, pp. 3– 26 (1993).
    連結:
  35. [44] S. Kawamoto et al. ‘‘An Approach to Stability Analysis of Second Order Fuzzy Systems,’’ Proceedings of First IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems,
    連結:
  36. [1] C.J. Chen, H.Y. Peng, B.F. Wu and Y.H. Chen, “A Real-Time Driving Assistance and Surveillance System,” JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING , Vol. 25 , pp. 1501 – 1523, 2009.
  37. [12] Min Tian, Fuqiang Liu, Wenhong Zhu, Chao Xu, “Vision Based Lane detection for Active Securityin Intelligent,” VehicleVehicular Electronics and Safety, 2006. ICVES 2006. IEEE International Conference on, pp. 507-511, 13-15 Dec. 2006.
  38. [15] J.W. Lee, S.U. Choi, Y.J. Lee and K. S. Lee, “A Study on Recognition of Road Lane and Movement of Vehicles using Vision System,” SICE 2001. Proceedings of the 40th SICE Annual Conference. International Session Papers , pp. 38 – 41, 2001.
  39. [19] J. Y. Wong,Theory of ground Vehicle ,New York,U.S.A.,John Wiley &sons,2001.
  40. [20] Ellis, J.R., Vehicle Dynamics. Business Books Limited, London, 1969.
  41. [26] 賴瑞海、黃靖雄,2008,汽車學Ⅱ(底盤篇),全華圖書股份有限公司,台北。
  42. [28] 鐘國亮,2011,影像處理與電腦視覺,東華書局出版社,台灣。
  43. [35] King Hann LIM, Kah Phooi SENG, Anh Cat LE NGO and Li-Minn ANG ,“Real-time Implementation of Vision-based Lane Detection and Tracking,” Intelligent Human-Machine Systems and Cybernetics, 2009. IHMSC '09. International Conference on, vol. 2, pp. 364 – 367, 26-27 Aug. 2009.
  44. [36] Jia He, Hui Rong, Jinfeng Gong and Wei Huang , “A Lane Detection Method for Lane Departure Warning System,” Optoelectronics and Image Processing (ICOIP), 2010 International Conference on, vol. 1, pp. 28 – 31, 11-12 Nov. 2010.
  45. [40] S. Boyd et al., Linear Matrix Inequalities in Systems and Control Theory, SIAM, Philadelphia, PA, 1994.
  46. Vol. 1, pp. 1427– 1434,1992.