Title

最佳化卡車動態地磅配置之研究

Authors

柯皓之

Key Words

動態地磅 ; 卡車 ; 雙層數學規劃 ; 啟發解法 ; 網路流動問題 ; Weigh-In-Motion ; Truck ; Bi-Level ; Heuristic ; Network Flow Problem

PublicationName

中央大學土木工程學系學位論文

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

2014年

Academic Degree Category

碩士

Advisor

顏上堯

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

卡車的是很常見的陸運方式,許多的卡車業者會以超載,來增加單次的運量,降低其成本,與節省時間。但是卡車的超載行為,會產生許多的負面成本,卻是由道路的使用者一起負擔,卡車的超載,不只會對道路的結構、鋪面造成損壞,也會增加道路的維護成本,在行駛的途中排放更多的廢棄,造成環境汙染,但是卡車卻不用因此付出更多的成本,因此交通管理單位必須透過法規,積極的取締超載的卡車,而為了攔截超重卡車,故有設置地磅之需要。由於動態地磅(Weigh-In-Motion, WIM)成本很高,因此在有限的預算下,其選址就顯得格外重要。 本研究利用數學規劃方法與網路流動技巧,透過雙層規劃模型模擬道路管理單位與超重卡車之間的交互關係,即在配置完卡車動態地磅之位置後,超重卡車會去閃避檢查站,而在現實中,卡車動態地磅之位置不可能一直改變因應超重卡車之各種路線,因此如果能在程式中最佳化其配置,直接取求得之結果當作最後的決策,道路管理單位就可以將卡車動態地磅裝設在效益最高之路段上。本研究之目的即為在道路管理單位之角度,求卡車對道路與環境之破壞最小化。本研究以雙層規劃數學模式,建構道路管理單位與超重卡車之間的交互關係,為進行多階段之上下層求解,本研究結合數學規劃套裝軟體CPLEX,發展一啟發解法。最後為評估本演算法之實用績效,以模擬之內華達州路網,並使用k-shortest path模式求出之解與啟發解法進行比較,最後針對不同參數進行方案分析與敏感度分析,結果顯示本研究之演算法可改善 k-shortest path模式之不足,且求解效率甚佳。

English Abstract

Trucks are one common kind of vehicles for land transportation. In order to reduce costs and save time, many truck drivers would expand the one-time amount of cargo by overloads. Overweight trucks, however, incur numerous negative costs shared with other road users. The overloads not only cause damage to the road structure and pavements, but also increase costs of road maintenance. Overweight trucks emit much more exhaust that pollutes the environment without paying the price. Therefore, the authority of traffic administration has to aggressively capture overweight trucks at law. To capture overweight trucks, Weigh-In-Motion of trucks is required. As the cost of WIM (Weigh-In-Motion) is high, site selection becomes particularly important on a limited budget. This study applies mathematical programming method as well as network flow techniques and simulates the interaction between the authority of road administration and overweight trucks in the use of Bi-Level mathematical programming method, in which overweight trucks would avoid the check point after arranging the site of WIM. In reality, the site of WIM could not be constantly changed to cater to every route overweight trucks take. Accordingly, if we can optimize the location by the program and use the result as final decision, the authority of road administration can install WIM on the most effective road. This study aims to minimize the damage due to overweight trucks from the authority’s point of view. This study utilizes Bi-Level mathematical programming method to establish the interaction between the authority of road administration and overweight trucks. To simulate multi-phased upper and lower layer solution, this study also develop a heuristic solution algorithm in coordination with mathematical programming software package CPLEX; to evaluate the practical performance of this algorithm, this study imitates Nevada network and compares the solution given by k-shortest path method with the heuristic solution algorithm, and ultimately performs sensitive and scenario analysis for different parameters. The result shows that the proposed algorithm provided by this study is efficient and can improve the shortcomings of k-shortest path method.

Topic Category 工學院 > 土木工程學系
工程學 > 土木與建築工程
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