Classifying and rating of bridges of local governments for bridge inspection
臺灣地區橋梁管理資訊系統 ； 橋梁定期檢測 ； 橋梁分類與分級 ； 縣市政府橋梁 ； Taiwan bridge management system ； bridge inspection ； classifying bridge ； rating of bridge ； bridges of local government
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國內橋梁常遭颱風豪雨侵襲而發生斷橋事件，因此「臺灣地區橋梁管理資訊系統」中歷年記載橋梁定期檢測資料詳實與否，為各管理單位關注之重點。根據民國99年交通部運輸研究所委託國立中央大學執行「臺灣地區橋梁管理資訊系統橋梁資料查核計畫」案中，各縣市政府管轄橋梁檢測資料詳實度相對於基本資料詳實度為低，因此交通部運輸研究所規劃於民國104年後透過「第二代臺灣地區橋梁管理資訊系統」，以手持裝置逐跨、逐墩、逐構件詳細檢測各座橋梁，以提升橋梁資料完整度與詳實程度。 因此，未來橋梁檢測時間與工作量將較現行方式增加，對於管轄橋數較多的縣市政府而言，若按目前「公路養護規範」與「縣市政府橋梁維護管理作業評鑑」每兩年定期檢測橋梁一次之規定，各縣市政府在有限之檢測經費下，將無法達到此一要求。故各縣市政府應將橋梁分類與分級，優先檢測重要且危急性較高的橋梁。本研究訪談各縣市政府承辦人員、現地廠商與橋梁領域經驗豐富之高階主管，將橋梁依是否跨河、是否有落墩與道路等級，分為六種類別。本研究並按各類橋梁維修優先順序與易損壞之橋齡，以四年之最大檢測年限為ㄧ個檢測週期，規劃各類橋梁在四年內應檢測之頻率。 經本研究試算後，各縣市政府若實施分類與分級檢測，整體而言可減少約37%檢測數量與18%檢測經費。雖部份縣市政府分級後檢測經費上升，但也反映轄區重要橋梁所佔比例高，需增加其檢測經費。因此透過本研究建議之橋梁檢測分類與分級方式，可提供各縣市政府在規劃分配橋梁檢測經費與人力時之參考。
Many bridges in Taiwan collapsed due to typhoons and torrential rains. Historical bridge inspection data recorded in the Taiwan Bridge Management System (TBMS) are often checked and discussed to explore reasons of failure. However, the “Validation of bridge inventory data in TBMS” project, executed by National Central University and funded by the Institute of Transportation Ministry of Transportation and Communications (MOTC) in 2010, reported that the accuracy of bridge inspection data were lower than that of inventory data. Thus, MOTC plans to enforce a new and detailed bridge inspection process after 2015, i.e., bridge is inspected component by component by portable devices, in order to improve the completeness and accuracy of inspection data. Therefore, government bridge management agencies will need to increase the inspection budgets to fulfill the new inspection requirements. Since current bridge maintenance regulations require a bridge be inspected at least once per two years, for those agencies which manage large amount of bridges may not have enough budgets to meet such inspection regulation. Therefore, prioritization by classifying and rating of bridges becomes necessary under limited budget. This research conducted expert interviews to obtain appropriate bridge classification criteria. There are six classes of bridge identified based on three factors: (1) crossing on a river, (2) pier existing in the river, and (3) level of road the bridge is on. This research further assigned a bridge with one of four kinds of inspection frequency based on deterioration condition and age of the bridge. The longest inspection frequency is once per four years for a bridge in relatively good condition. After classifying and rating of bridges, it is found that approximately 37% of inspection workload and 18% of inspection budgets can be saved for all the counties. However, very few counties need to increase their inspection budgets due to many bridges are rated at higher frequency of inspection. This research provides an effective means to classify bridges and also offers a rating standard for bridge inspection. Such mechanism can serve as a useful reference for bridge management agencies of local governments.
工程學 > 土木與建築工程
社會科學 > 管理學