Title

具特殊官能基之土壤對水溶液中有機與無機污染物吸持行為之研究

Translated Titles

The Influence of Distinctive Functional Groups in Soil on the Sorption of Organic and Inorganic Compounds

Authors

莊雅婷

Key Words

分佈介質 ; 同時吸持 ; BTEX ; Koc ; 改質土壤 ; modified clay ; BTEX ; Koc ; partition medium ; sorption

PublicationName

中央大學環境工程研究所學位論文

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

2011年

Academic Degree Category

碩士

Advisor

李俊福

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

在自然環境下通常為無機與有機污染物同時存在,而一般土壤攜帶負電對金屬離子具有高親和力,但於水溶液中對有機污染物則不具吸附性;傳統土壤改質劑可增加土壤有機質含量並增加其對有機污染物之吸持能力但卻對金屬離子不具親和力。   本研究藉由鈉蒙特石與三種具特殊官能基之改質劑進行陽離子交換作用製備含人造有機質之改質土壤,利用其特殊構造可同時吸持無機重金屬與非離子有機污染物。實驗結果發現,改質土壤對重金屬的吸附作用為改質劑的胺基與金屬離子發生錯合反應,且對Cu2+之親和力較好,主因為Cu2+會易與有機質結合而吸附量較大。改質土壤對BTEX的吸持以土壤有機相之分佈為主而有機吸附質的水溶解度與其分佈常數呈反比。相同有機吸附質(BTEX)於不同改質土壤的Koc與改質土壤的有機碳含量呈負相關性,且BTEX之分佈行為受到改質土壤的疏水性分佈環境所影響。天然土壤經有機改質劑改良後對NOCs之分佈有較好之結果,而本研究使用之有機改質劑所形成的分佈介質良好且沒有極性官能基影響BTEX之分佈行為。改質土壤對重金屬為無機相吸附作用而對NOCs則為有機相分佈作用,研究證實在同時吸持作用下因吸附機制不同故沒有發生相互競爭之行為。

English Abstract

In the natural environment, usually inorganic and organic contaminants exist, but generally the soil to carry a negative charge has affinity for the metal ions, but not for organic pollutants in aqueous solution. Conventional soil modifier can increase soil organic matter content and increase their sorption capacity of organic pollutants but does not have affinity for metal ions.   In this present study, a new approach to modify soil using the specific modifier is focused. By sodium montmorillonite with three special functional groups as the modifier, cation exchange effect and modification of soil, using its special structure which can absorb heavy metals and nonionic organic compounds (NOCs) simultaneously were carried out. The results showed that ligand of polyamine halide offer lone pair to the heavy metal to form complex reaction. In addition, alkyl chain on the soil surface can be regarded as a partition medium. The affinity for Cu2+ is better, would be because of easy Cu2+ and binding to the ligand and hence increased adsorption. Modified clay sorption of BTEX in the distribution of soil organic-based and water solubility of organic adsorbate in inversely proportional to its distribution constant. The same organic adsorbate (BTEX) in different adsorbent’s, distribution constant of organic carbon (Koc) and modified clay organic carbon content was negatively correlated, the distribution and behavior of BTEX by the hydrophobic modification of soil affected by the environment. Natural soil by the organic modifier improved the distribution of NOCs better in this study and partition medium does not affect the polar functional groups of the distribution of BTEX behavior. Modification of soil for heavy metals is the inorganic phase of the adsorption and partition of the NOCs is the role of the organic phase. Thus it is confirmed that the role of sorption at the same time due to the different adsorption mechanism and they do not compete with each other''s behavior.

Topic Category 工學院 > 環境工程研究所
工程學 > 土木與建築工程
Reference
  1. ? Abollion, O.; Aceto, M.; Malandrino, M.; Sarzanini, C.; and Mentasti, E., “Adsorption of Heavy Metals on Na-montmorillonite. Effect of pH and Organic Substances.”, Water Research, 37, 1619-1627, (2003)
    連結:
  2. ? Altin, O.; Ozbelge, O. H; and Dogu, T., “Effect of pH, Flow Rate and Concentration on the Sorption of Pb and Cd on Montmorillonite : I. Experimental.”, Journal Chem Technol Biotechnol, 74, 1131-1138, (1999)
    連結:
  3. ? Baldrian, P.; Cajthaml, T.; Merhautová, V.; Gabriel, J.; Nerud, F.; Stopka, P.; Hruby´, M.; and Benesˇ, M.J., “Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Hydrogen Peroxide Catalyzed by Heterogeneous Polymeric Metal Chelates.”, Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 59, 267-274, (2005)
    連結:
  4. ? Barbier, F.; Duc, G.; and Petit-Ramel, M., “Adsorption of Lead and Cadmium Ions from Aqueous Solution to the Montmorillonite/Water Interface.”, Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 166, 153-159, (2000)
    連結:
  5. ? Boyd, S.A.; Lee, J.F.; and Mortland, M.M., “Attenuating Organic Contaminant Obility by Soil Modification.”, Nature, 333, 345-347, (1988)
    連結:
  6. ? Brunauer, S.; Deming, L.S.; Deming, W.E.; and Teller, E., “On a Theory of the van der Waals Adsorption of Gases”, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 62, 1723-1732, (1940)
    連結:
  7. ? Chiou, C.T.; Louis, J.P.; and Virgil, H.F., “A Physical Concept of Soil-Water Equilibria for Nonionic Organic Compounds.”, Science, 206, 831-832, (1979)
    連結:
  8. ? Chiou, C.T.; Porter, P.E.; and Schmedding, D.W., “Partition Equilibriaof Nonionic Organic Compounds between Soil Organic Matter and Water.”, Environ. Sci. Technol., 17, 227-231, (1983)
    連結:
  9. ? Chiou, C.T.; Shoup, T.D.; and Porter, P.E., “Mechanistic Roles of Soil Humus and Minerals in the Sorption of Nonionic Organic Compounds from Aqueous and Organic Solution.”, Org. Geochem., 8, 9-14, (1985)
    連結:
  10. ? Chiou, C.T.; Lee, J.F.; and Boyd, S.A., “The Surface Area of Soil Organic Matter.”, Environ. Sci. Technol., 24, 1164-1166, (1990)
    連結:
  11. ? Farrah, H.; Hatton, D.; and Pickering, W. F., “The Affinity of Metal Ions for Clay Surfaces.”, Chemical Geology, 28, 55-68, (1980)
    連結:
  12. ? Felbeck, G.T., “Structural Chemistry of Soil Humic Substances.”, Adv. Agron., 327-368, (1965)
    連結:
  13. ? Fontes, M.P.F.; and Gomes, P.C., “Simultaneous Competitive Adsorption of Heavy Metals by the Mineral Matrix of Tropical Soils.”, Applied Geochemistry, 18, 795–804, (2003)
    連結:
  14. ? Gabriel, J.; Shah, V.; Nesmerak, K.; Baldrian, P.; and Nerud, F., “Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by the Copper(II)-Hydrogen Peroxide System.”, Folia Microbiologica, 45, 573-575, (2000)
    連結:
  15. ? Grathwohl, P., “Influence of Organic Matter from Soils and Sediments from Various Organicon the Sorption of Some Chlorinated Aliphatic Hydrocarbons : Implications on Koc Correlations.”, Environ. Sci. Technol, 24, 1687-1693, (1990)
    連結:
  16. ? Huang, W.; Schlautman, M.A.; and Weber, W.J., Jr. “A Distributed Reactivity Model for Sorption by Soils and Sediments. 5. The Influence of Near-Surface Characteristics in Mineral Domains.”, Environ. Sci. Technol., 30, 2993-3000, (1996)
    連結:
  17. ? Kraepiel, A.M.L.; Keller, K.; and Morel, F.M.M., “A Model for Metal Adsorption on Montmorillonite.”, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 210, 43-54, (1999)
    連結:
  18. ? Lambert, S.M.; Porter, P.E.; and Schieferstein, R.H., “Movement and Sorption of Chemicals Applied to the Soil.”, Weed, 13, 185-190 (1965)
    連結:
  19. ? Lambert, S.M., “Functional Relationship Between Sorption in Soil and Chemical Structure.”, J. Agric. Food Chem., 15, 572-576, (1976)
    連結:
  20. ? Lee, J.F.; Crum J. R.; and Boyd, S.A., “Enhanced Retention of Organic Contaminants by Soil Exchanged with Organic Cations.”, Environ. Sci. Technol, 23, 1365-1372, (1989)
    連結:
  21. ? Lee, J.F.; Liao, P.M.; Kuo, C.C.; Yang, H.T.; and Chiou, C.T., “Influence of a Nonionic Surfactant (Triton X-100) on Contaminant Distribution between Water and Several Soil Solids.”, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 229, 445-452, (2000)
    連結:
  22. ? Lee, J.F.; Chang, Y.T.; Chao, H.P.; Huang, H.C.; and Hsu, M.H., “Organic Compound Distribution between Nonionic Surfactant Solution and Natural Solids : Applicability of a Solution Property Parameter.”, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 129, 282-289, (2006)
    連結:
  23. ? Lin, S.H.; and Juang, R.S., “Heavy Metal Removal from Water by Sorption using Surfactant-Modified Montmorillonite.”, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 92, 315-326, (2002)
    連結:
  24. ? Lu, C.Y.; Tseng, H.H.; Wey, M.Y.; Liu, L.Y.; Kuo, J.H.; and Chuang, K.H., “Al2O3-Supported Cu-Co Bimetallic Catalysts Prepared with Polyol Process for Removal of BTEX and PAH in the Incineration Flue Gas.”, Fuel, 88, 340–347, (2009)
    連結:
  25. ? Mader, B.T.; Goss, K.U.; and Eisenreich, S. J., “Sorption of Nonionic, Hydrophobic Organic Chemicals to Mineral Surfaces.”, Environ. Sci. Technol., 31, 1079-1086, (1997)
    連結:
  26. ? Matyjaszewski, K.; Wei, M.; Xia,J.; and McDermott, N.E, “Controlled/’Living’ Radical Polymerization of Styrene and Methyl Methacrylate Catalyzed by Iron Complexes.”, Macromolecule, 30, 8161-8164, (1997)
    連結:
  27. ? Means, J.C.; Wood, S.G.; Hassett, J.J.; and Banwart. W.L., “Sorption of Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Sediments and Soils.”, Environ. Sci. Technol., 14, 1524-1528, (1980)
    連結:
  28. ? Murphy, E.M.; Zachara, J.M.; and Smith, S.C., “Influence of Mineral-Bound Humic Substances on the Sorption of Hydrophobic Organic Compounds.”, Environ. Sci. Technol., 24, 1507-1516, (1990)
    連結:
  29. ? Nerud, F.; Baldrian, P.; Gabriel, J.; and Ogbeifun, D., “Decolorization of Synthetic Dyes by the Fenton Reagent and the Cu/Pyridine/H2O2 System.”, Chemosphere, 44, 957-961, (2001)
    連結:
  30. ? Nzengung, V.A.; Castillo, R.M.; Gates, W.P.; and Mills, G.L., “Abiotic Transformation of Perchloroethylene in Homogeneous Dithionite Solution and in Suspensions of Dithionite-Treated Clay Minerals.”, Environ. Sci. Technol., 35, 2244-2251, (2001)
    連結:
  31. ? Potgieter, J.H.; Potgieter-Vermaak, S.S.; and Kalibantonga, P.D., “Heavy Metals Removal from Solution by Palygorskite clay.”, Minerals Engineering, 19, 463-470, (2006)
    連結:
  32. ? Reddy, K.R.; and Chinthamreddy, S., “Effects of Initial form of Chromium on Electrokinetic Remediation in Clays.”, Advances in Environmental Research, 7, 353-365, (2003)
    連結:
  33. ? Rutherford, D.W.; and Chiou, C.T., “Effect of Water Saturation in Soil Organic Matter on the Partition of Organic Compounds.”, Environ. Sci. Technol., 26, 965-970, ( 1992)
    連結:
  34. ? Sari, A.; Tuzen, M.; Citak, D.; and Soylak, M., “Adsorption Characteristics of Cu(II) and Pb(II) onto Expanded Perlite from Aqueous Solution.”, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 148, 387-394, (2007)
    連結:
  35. ? Sari, A.; Tuzen, M.; and Soylak, M., “Adsorption of Pb(II) and Cr(III) from Aqueous Solution on Celtek Clay.”, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 144, 41-46, (2007)
    連結:
  36. ? Shah, V.; Verma, P.; Stopka, P.; Gabriel, J.; Baldrian, P.; and Nerud, F., “Decolorization of Dyes with Copper(II)/Organic Acid/Hydrogen Peroxide Systems.”, Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 46, 287–292, (2003)
    連結:
  37. ? Trivedi, P.; Axe, L.; and Dyer, J., “Adsorption of Matel Ions onto Goethite : Singe–Adsorbate and Competitive Systems.”, A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 191, 107–121, (2001)
    連結:
  38. ? Verma, P.; Shah, V.; Baldrian, P.; Gabriel, J.; Stopka, P.; Trnka, T.; and Nerud, F., “Decolorization of Synthetic Dyes Using a Copper Complex with Glucaric Acid.”, Chemosphere, 54 , 291–295, (2004)
    連結:
  39. ? Wang, C.C.; Juang, L.C.; Hsu, T.C.; Lee, C.K.; Lee, J.F.; and Huang, F.C., “Adsorption of Basic Dyes onto Montmorillonite.”, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 273, 80-86, (2004)
    連結:
  40. ? Wang, X.S.; and Qin, Y., “Equilibrium Sorption Isotherms for of Cu2+ on Rice Bran.”, Process Biochemistry, 40, 677-680, (2005)
    連結:
  41. ? Wu, J.K.; and Hsu, Y.S., “Electrochemical Corrosion of Zinc in Sodium Chlorite.”, Journal of Materials Science, 21, 3475-3478, (1986)
    連結:
  42. ? Xing, B.; McGil, B.; and Dudas, M.J., “Sorption of α-Naphthol onto Organic Sorbents Varying in Polarity and Aromaticity.”, Chemosphere, 28, 145-153, (1994)
    連結:
  43. ? Yavuz, O.; Altunkaynak, Y.; and Guzel, F., “Removal of Copper, Nickel, Cobalt and Manganese from Aqueous Solution by Kaolinite.”, Water Research, 37, 948-952, (2003)
    連結:
  44. ? 黃慧貞,“土壤有機質特異組成及含量對非離子有機化合物吸持行為之研究”,博士論文,國立中央大學環境工程研究所,(2006)
    連結:
  45. ? 楊逸禎,“土壤無機相對有機污染物吸附特性之研究”,碩士論文,國立中央大學環境工程研究所,(2007)
    連結:
  46. ? Bohn, H.L.; Mcheal, B.L.; and George, A.O., “Soil Chemistry”, 7nd Ed., New York, (1985)
  47. ? Chiou, C.T., “Partition and Adsorption of Organic Contaminants in Environmental Systems”, Hoboken, N.J. : Wiley-Interscience, (2002)
  48. ? Gabriel, J.; Baldrian, P.; Verma, P.; Cajthaml, T.; Merhautová, V. and Eichlerová, I.; Stoytchev, I.; Trnka, T.; Stopka, P.; and Nerud, F., “Degradation of BTEX and PAHs by Co(II) and Cu(II)-Based Radical-Generating Systems.”, Applied Catalysis B:Environmental, 51, 159-164, (2004)
  49. ? Georig, A.; Schierz, A.; Trommler, U.; Horwitz, C.P.; Collins, T.J.; and Kopinke, F.D., “Humic Acid Modified Fenton Reagent for Enhancement of the Working pH Range.”, Applied Catalysis B:Environmental, 72, 26-36, (2007)
  50. ? IUPAC Manual of Symbols and Terminology, Appendix 2, Pt. 1, Colloid and Surface Chemistry, Pure Appl. Chem., 31, 578, (1972)
  51. ? McBride, M.B., “Environmental Chemistry of Soils.”, Oxford University Press, New York, (1994)
  52. ? Weast, R.C.; Astle, M.J.; and Beyer, W.H., “CRC Handbook of CHEMISTRY and PHYSICS”, 68th Ed, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, Florida, (1988)
  53. ? 戴國邦,「土壤礦物」,能源、資源與環境,第六卷,第三期,第16~21頁,(1993)
Times Cited
  1. 何珮瑜(2015)。以SPME技術評估覆蓋系統對底泥中污染物釋出的影響。中興大學環境工程學系所學位論文。2015。1-144。 
  2. 林芳伃(2012)。多重功能改質黏土之吸持與催化特性研究。中央大學環境工程研究所學位論文。2012。1-121。
  3. 馬宜君(2015)。雙重功能層柱改質黏土之製備與吸持特性研究。中央大學環境工程研究所學位論文。2015。1-99。
  4. 陳誼庭(2015)。雙重功能層柱改質黏土之製備與其吸持特性之研究。中央大學環境工程研究所學位論文。2015。1-101。
  5. 徐甄(2015)。發展持久性pH緩衝膠體基質處理受三氯乙烯污染之地下水。中山大學環境工程研究所學位論文。2015。1-116。