Title

尖翅燕魚的初期發育與微細構造之研究

Translated Titles

Early development and microstructures of Tiera batfish, Platax teira (Forsskål, 1775)

DOI

10.6346/NPUST.2010.00021

Authors

戴克遠

Key Words

胚胎 ; 仔稚魚 ; 微細構造 ; 尖翅燕魚 ; embryo ; larva ; microstructure ; Platax teira

PublicationName

屏東科技大學水產養殖系所學位論文

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

2010年

Academic Degree Category

碩士

Advisor

劉俊宏;呂明毅;張桂祥

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

本研究以光學及解剖顯微鏡完整的記錄尖翅燕魚(Platax teira)胚胎及仔稚魚的形態發育,並利用電子顯微鏡觀察魚卵及仔魚的微細構造。尖翅燕魚之受精卵為分離之浮性卵,黃色透明而呈圓形,卵徑為1.29±0.05 mm(平均±標準偏差),大小介於1.17 - 1.32 mm之間。孵化時間在水溫26.2℃時,約需16小時。剛孵化的仔魚,體全長為2.81±0.24 mm,全身佈滿黃色素胞,具有24(11 + 13)肌節數及一顆很大的卵黃囊,單一油球位於卵黃囊的後下方。孵化後第三天,仔魚體全長3.41±0.11 mm,卵黃消耗殆盡,口已形成。孵化後第九天,仔魚體全長5.07±0.94 mm,身體出現黑色素胞,尾部鰭條開始發育,且脊索末端開始上屈。孵化後第十二天,仔魚體全長5.51±0.88 mm,背、臀鰭與尾鰭開始分離,並有互相殘食的現象。孵化後第十五天,仔魚體全長7.29±1.90 mm,眼球周圍出現紅色眼帶,脊索彎曲完成。全部的鰭條數於體全長為23.8±1.98 mm時達到成魚之定數,可謂開始進入稚魚期,並由表層浮游期進入底棲性的生活。而在電子顯微鏡的觀察下,其受精卵為圓形,表面光滑不具有紋路。卵表上的壁孔均勻散布且大小一致,壁孔為圓型且微突於卵表,密度約為 36個/100 μm2,卵門區域的壁孔較大並圍繞卵門。卵門為圓柱型,孔徑約為8.5μm,栓篩物集中在卵門內。孵化當天的仔魚,體表尚未具有鱗片,全身散佈瘤狀的突起物。孵化後第三天,突起物大幅減少,且口內尚未發育出牙齒,而鰓蓋上發育出一枚硬棘。孵化後第四天,牙齒開始發育,並可在體表發現神經丘的構造,但數量稀少。孵化後第十一天,口中長滿利齒,體表發育出初期的鱗片,神經丘開始沿著側線的部位發育。孵化後二十天,體表佈滿細鱗,側線部位的神經丘密集。孵化前十天的魚苗不具鱗片,且已發育神經丘,故不適合搬運,撈取或捕捉都會對其造成物理性的傷害。孵化後二十天,具有鱗片的保護,才能夠進行人為操作,這些都可能是魚苗能否成功培育的重要因素。

English Abstract

Embryonic and larval development of Platax teira was described and illustrated using optical and dissecting microscope, and the surface microsturctures of the eggs and larvae were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Fertilized eggs, with a mean diameter of 1.29±0.05 mm (mean±SD) and a range from 1.17-1.32 mm, were spherical, transparent, buoyant and pigmented. Embryonic development lasted 16 hours at 26.2℃. Newly hatched larvae were 2.81±0.24 mm in total length (TL) with 24 (11+13) myomeres and an oil globule in the ventroposterior area of the yolk sac, and had xantophores all over the body. Three days after hatching (DAH) (3.41±0.11 mm TL), the mouth opened and the yolk sac was almost completely absorbed. Nine DAH (5.07±0.94 mm TL), the notochord was slightly flexed, and the hypural bones and caudal fin rays began to develop. Larvae had melanophores scattered on the majority of the body. Twelve DAH (5.51±0.88 mm TL), the dorsal, anal and caudal fins began to separate. The cannibalistic behavior appeared at this stage. Fifteen DAH (7.29±1.90 mm TL), the red bands appeared around the eyes, and the notochord flexion was completed. At 23.8±1.98 mm TL, all fins had the adult complement of rays and spines, and the characteristic of this species, with 3 black bars on the sides, was completed in juvenile. The larval habitat shifted from the surface to the tank bottom. Under the scanning electron microscopy, fertilized egg was spherical and smooth. The pores on the egg surface were uniform in size and were protrudent, with a density about 36/100 μm2. The pores that were in the micropyle region were larger than in the other regions, and surrounded the micropyle in an orderly manner. The micropyle was cylinder shape, about 8.5 μm in diameter. There were many short stick-like fertilization cones inside the micropyle. There was no scale on newly hatched larvae, and the skin was covered with minute tubercles. Three DAH, the minute tubercles were significantly reduced in number. The mouth was open with no tooth, and there were one spine on the operculum. Four DAH, the teeth started to develop, and a few neuromasts were observed on the body surface. Seven DAH, teeth were fully developed, scales appeared on body surface, and neuromasts began to develop at the lateral line region. Twenty DAH, scales were fully developed, the neuromasts were dense around the lateral line region. This study reveals that larvae have no protection by scales, and neuromasts are developed before 10 DAH, and are fragile when in contact. After 20 DAH, larvae are protected by scales, and are able to be transported.

Topic Category 農學院 > 水產養殖系所
生物農學 > 漁業
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