Design of Instructional Modules and Instruction Concerning Nanotechnology “Moth Eye Effect” in Elementary Schools
奈米科技 ； 蛾眼效應 ； 抗反射 ； POE 教學策略 ； 教學模組 ； Nanotechnology ； Moth Eye Effect ； Antireflection ； POE instructional strategies ； Instructional Modules
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摘 要 本研究以 POE 「預測 (predict)－觀察 (observe)－解釋 (explain) 」教學策略、概念圖教學策略發展國小奈米科技「蛾眼效應」教學模組，內容包含：蛾眼效應的原理與應用、蛾眼效應的特性、分辨蛾眼效應與非蛾眼效應、週期性結構大小與光反射性之關聯性、奈米定義與特性。 本研究採行動研究，以方便取樣調查，對新北市五股區3班共70位國小四年級生教學；教學前後以「蛾眼效應學習成就測驗卷」、「科學過程技能測驗卷」進行前後測。研究者進行課室觀察，拍攝國小四年級生於「蛾眼效應」教學模組學習情形，並蒐集國小四年級生繪製之概念圖、「蛾眼效應學習成就測驗卷」、「科學過程技能測驗卷」、蛾眼效應學習單，教學後與研究團隊進行教學檢討，於改進教學模組後，進入下一班級教學。最後，進行資料分析與結果。進行資料分析與結果。茲將研究結果列述如下： 一、以 POE 教學策略、概念圖教學策略發展的「蛾眼效應」教學模組能使國小學生了解蛾眼效應的現象、科學原理和生活應用。 二、國小四年級生經行動環的教學活動學習： （一）第一班教學後，修正蛾眼與蟬翅光反射的辨別，加入光碟構造介紹，加入概念圖示範。 （二）第二班教學後，修正跳棋模擬活動，加入跳棋陣列白紙變皺的活動，加入概念圖繪製教學。 （三）第三班教學後，達成學習成效：1.學生了解自然界蛾眼效應的現象。2.學生能列出蛾眼效應奈米結構的條件。3.學生能證實蛾眼效應能抗反射。4.學生能說出三種以上蛾眼效應的生活科技。 三、國小四年級生的蛾眼效應學習成就前後測達顯著差異（第一班， t=3.16，p=.005）、（第二班， t=5.31， p=.000）、（第三班， t=9.22， p=.000）。 四、國小四年級生的科學過程技能前後測達顯著差異（第一班， t=2.28， p=.033）、（第二班， t=5.29， p=.000）、（第三班， t=4.61， p=.000）。 五、國小四年級生的概念圖能具有及格的分數 (75.3％) 。 本研究提出三點建議： （一）對教學的建議：國小階段蛾眼效應以現象觀察為主，教學時要讓學生親自操作，並給予學生充足的時間討論。 （二）對行動研究的建議：教師要提升專業素養，以行動環的方式，精煉自身的教學。 （三）對後續研究的建議：將蛾眼效應延伸至 K-12的教學模組，於國高中探討其原理。
Design of Instructional Modules and Instruction Concerning Nanotechnology “Moth Eye Effect” in Elementary Schools ABSTRACT This study adopts the POE (predict - observe - explain) and concept map instructional strategies to develop the instructional modules of Nanotechnology “Moth Eye Effect” in elementary schools. The modules contain the following parts: theories and application of the moth eye effect, features of the moth eye effect, distinguishing the moth eye effect from others, correlation between sizes of periodic structures and the light reflectivity, and the definition and features of nanometer. The study adopted practical researches to facilitate sampling and investigation. It took totally 70 fourth grade elementary students from 3 classes in Wuku District of New Taipei City as the subjects and executed the pre-test and the post test respectively with the Test of Learning Achievement of Moth Eye Effect and Test of Scientific Process Skill. The researchers conducted classroom observation and shot fourth grade students’ learning situation in the instructional modules of “Moth Eye Effect”. Futhermore, researchers collected concept maps drew by the fourth grade students, Test of Learning Achievement of Moth Eye Effect, Test of Scientific Process Skill and working sheets of the moth eye effect. Teaching reviews were carried out within the research group after teaching activities. They moved the instruction to the next class after improving the instructional modules. Finally, researchers executed the data analysis and came up the results. The research results are listed as follows: First. With the POE and concept map instructional strategies to develop the teaching modules of “moth eye effect”, students are able to understand the phenomenon, scientific principle and application in life of the moth eye effect. Second. Fourth grade students’ learning in the teaching activities with action cycle: (1) Amended the distinguishing method of moth eye and the light reflectivity of cicada wings after the teaching of the first class and added the introduction of structure of optical disks and the demonstration of concept maps. (2) Amended the analogue activities of Chinese checkers after the teaching of the second class. Added the activity that the white paper of the Chinese chekers array become crumpled. Add the teaching of drawing of concept maps. (3) Reached the learning achievement after the teaching of the third class: 1. Students understand the phenomenon of the moth eye effect in the natural world. 2. Students could list the conditions of the nanometer structure in the moth eye effect. 3. Students could verify that the moth eye effect can resist refelctivity. 4. Students could come out with three living technologies of the moth eye effect. Third. Fourth grade students made significant differences on the pretest and post test concerning the learning achievement of the moth eye effect (the 1st class, t=3.16，p=.005), (the 2nd class, t=5.31，p=.000), (the 3rd class, t=9.22，p=.000). Fourth. Fourth grade students made significant differences on the pretest and post test concerning the scientific process skill (the 1st class, t=2.28，p=.033), (the 2nd class, t=5.29，p=.000), (the 3rd class, t=4.61，p=.000). Fifth. The concept maps of fourth grade students reached the passing standard (75.3%). The study puts forward three suggestions: 1. Suggestions for teaching: During the elementary period, learning of the moth eye effect shall play more attention on the observation of phenomena. During the instruction, teachers shall offers students chances to operate by themselves and to discuss in adequate time. 2. Suggestions for practical researches: Teachers shall improve their professional accomplishment and refine their teaching via the method of action cycles. 3. Suggestions for sequential researches: Extend the moth eye effect to the K-12 instructional module and discuss the theories of it in senior high school.
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