A Study on Design Requirement and Investigation of Fire Site Emergency Escape Auxiliary Equipment
火場；火災輔助器材；緊急逃生；設計需求 ； fire site；fire auxiliary equipment；emergency escape；design requirement
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The purpose of this study is to target the design requirement and investigation of emergency escape auxiliary equipment available at the fire site in order to improve the shortcomings of existing fire prevention or rescue related products, thus fully bringing out their “daily use and emergency use” features. In this study, a literature review was first adopted to collect and compile complete data from both foreign and domestic sources. Secondly, the fuzzy Delphi method was employed to screen design requirement factors, and the Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process, FAHP was used to compute various factor weights in order to establish comprehensive design requirement factors. In addition, in order to gain an insight into the differences in design requirement factor attributes, a Kano 2-dimensional quality model and importance-performance analysis were used as investigation tools to explore the respective factor attributes and carry out placement analysis. Finally, the existing patent development status was explored using patent information and analysis, through which whether the investigation results were in line with the present technological development was verified. Research results show that (1) the initial design requirement factors consist of 41 items. After screening through the fuzzy Delphi method, four dimensions were obtained, including operability, functionality, reliability, and economical efficiency, as well as 21 design requirement factors. (2) The FAHP was applied to calculate weights. The dimensions ranked in order are: functionality, operability, reliability, and economical efficiency. The top ten items of requirement factors in order are: maneuverability, high functional stability, smoke protection performance, lighting warning function, self-help at the earliest time, quick access to equipment, simple operating procedures, effective escape from the disaster scene, user-friendly interface, illustration and text instructions, etc. (3) After two-dimensional attribute classification and satisfaction matrix analysis, it was shown that the charismatic requirement attributes include: “user-friendly interface, effective escape from the disaster scene, quick access to equipment, illustration and text instructions, a long service life, economic benefits, and comprehensive after-sales service”, seven items in total. The necessary requirement attributes are: high reliability, anti-flame regulations, all types of fire safety equipment identification standards, thermal and fire-resistant material, and applicability to all ethnic groups, five items in total. As for the linearity requirement attributes, they include: simple operating procedures, self-help at the earliest time, smoke protection performance, lighting warning function, high functional stability, maneuverability, components not easily deformed/detached, solid installation positioning, and durable product structure, nine items in total. (4) In importance-performance analysis, eight items fall under Quadrant I, indicating a high degree of importance and performance, and thus should be maintained; three items fall under Quadrant II, indicating a low degree of importance and a high degree of satisfaction, and thus are overemphasized; eight items fall under Quadrant III, indicating a low degree of importance and a low degree of performance, which are considered secondary improvement areas; two items fall under Quadrant IV, indicating a low degree of importance and a high degree of performance, which are prioritized improvement areas. (5) The most needed fire safety equipment products investigated at present include: fire extinguishers, automatic fire alarm equipment, emergency lighting, automatic water sprinkling equipment, and escape rope, which are the most popular. As for whether or not fire safety equipment products have been purchased, 53% of the people’s homes are equipped with fire safety equipment products, of which 59% are located in public areas and 41% are found at home. In addition, the top five items under “using daily products at home to escape from the fire site” ranked in order are: bath towels, hand towels, blankets, curtains, quilts, etc. The top ten items for daily use and disaster escape use ranked in order are: bath towels, hand towels, ropes, quilts, ladders, hoses, bed sheets, curtains, blankets, and carpets. The respondents found these items to be products suitable as auxiliary equipment for emergency escape at the fire site; (6) The patent information system was used to perform searches, and search results were manually screened. Six representative patents were used in verification and analysis in order to understand the relatedness between investigation results and the current technological development. The research results can enable designers to combine daily products with disaster rescue and escape functions during new product development, so that people can use them for rescue at the time of a disaster occurrence, thereby minimizing plights faced during the disaster. This way, products that meet users’ actual needs can be developed, while achieving the vision of “substance continuation and substance reduction”.
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