A Cross-age Investigation of High School Students' Mental Models of Circuit
張志康(Chih-Kang Chang)；林靜雯(Jing-Wen Lin)；邱美虹(Mei-Hung Chiu)
跨年級 ； 心智模式 ； 串並聯電路 ； cross-age ； mental model ； circuit
|Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication||
317期（2009 / 04 / 01）
2 - 17
組織學習管理大師，彼得聖吉(2007)認爲：心智模式是人們體會、了解某個特定知識領域的管道或方式，它不僅決定我們如何認知周遭世界，並影響我們如何採取行動。然而，某些特定知識領域對某些人們而言（如串並聯電路對小學生而言），卻具有高度抽象性及複雜性，致使他們無法建立正確的心智模式去體會、了解那些特定知識領域（邱美虹＆林靜雯，2002）。因此，本研究試圖調查各種可能存在於基本電路領域的心智模式，透過橫斷取樣的研究方法，探討跨年級中學生在面臨此領域時心智模式種類的消長情形與答題結果的一致性，藉此了解他們是如何運用心智模式的。研究者以兩份診斷式測驗檢測國一～高三共六個年級、180位學生對「串並聯電路」的心智模式。研究結果發現： 1.學生在串並聯電路的心智模式均可分爲六種模式；此結果與Chiu&Lin(2005)的研究相呼應，亦即中學生串並聯電路心智模式的種類與小學生相同。 2.隨著年級的增加，具有科學模式的人數比例上升，運用同一種心智模式回答串並聯測驗的人數比例也提高；此結果與吳怡嫺(2007)的研究相呼應，亦即不同特定領域的知識仍可獲得相同的結果。 3.低年級中學生持有錯誤的心智模式雖多，但隨著年級的增加，運用同一種正確心智模式回答串並聯測驗的人數比例亦逐年增加；此結果亦間接支持了Vosniadou(1994)的觀點，即人類的心智模式都具有某種程度的一致性，是與生俱來且難以避免的。
The managing master of organized learning-Peter Senge (2007) proposed that mental model is the medium that helps people realize or understand a specific knowledge domain. It not only helped humans know the natural environment, but also influenced humans to take action. However, some concepts are abstract and complicated to some people, such as electricity to students. Accordingly, this kind of knowledge causes some people not to construct correct mental models and not to realize or understand those specific domains (Chiu & Lin, 2002). So, this research examined what kinds of mental models of electric circuit that the students hold. Through a cross-age investigation, the researchers investigated the categories and changes of mental models that high school students in each grade held while they facing the electric circuit. All data collection processes provided information about how the students constructed and modified their mental models. The researchers investigated 180 students' mental models (from sixth to twelfth grade) about the electric circuit of series/parallel connection with two diagnosis type tests. The results of this study showed that: 1. Students had six kinds of mental models for series and parallel circuits. The result was similar to the research by Chiu & Lin (2005). That means the categories of mental models of high school students is similar to elementary school students. 2. With the increase of the grade, the population of the student holding scientific model was increasing, and the population of the student holding consistency model was increasing, too. The result was similar to the research by Wu (2007). That is, in different contents (physics and biology), the more graders, the more consistency. 3. Although lower grade students hold wrong mental model more, by the increase of the grade, the population of the student holding correct and consistency model was increasing. The result was similar to the view of Vosniadou (1994). That means humans' mental models have a certain consistency that is innate and difficult to avoid.