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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 177 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 朱慶琳、黃宜珊、姜忠信、吳進欽、侯育銘(2012) 。學齡前自閉症類兒童的適應行為型態與認知功能及症狀嚴重度之關連。中華心理學刊,54,349 – 364。
  2. 柯慧貞、朱倍毅、陸偉明、高振傑、龔毅珊、邱郁雯…胡崇元(2008)。更新學齡前兒童行爲發展量表的常模。測驗學刊,55,313-340。
  3. 徐澄清(1999)。因材施教。台北市:健康世界叢書。
  4. 孫懿英、王如華、黃碧桃、白璐(2001)。學齡前期先天性心臟病童與一般兒童之氣質、母親教養方式比較。護理研究,9,39-52。
  5. 邱資皇(2012)。以國際功能、失能與健康分類系統-兒童青少年版理論架構探討學前自閉症兒童母親之親職壓力預測因子(碩士論文, 國立台灣大學, 台北)。取自臺灣博碩士論文系統資料庫。
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