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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 77 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 吳珩潔(2002)。大台北地區民眾休閒滿意度與幸福感之研究。碩士論文,台灣師範大學運動休閒與管理研究所。
  2. 吳雅傳(2010)。司法人員休閒運動參與及休閒滿意度之研究-以花東區法院為例。碩士論文,國立臺東大學健康促進與休閒管理研究所。
  3. 吳筱雯(2005)。桃園縣國中已婚女性教師生活壓力與休閒參與、休閒滿意及幸福感之相關研究。碩士論文,國立體育學院運動休閒與管理研究所。
  4. 呂佳茹、劉佳哲、張碧峰、郭昱洧(2013)。乙組網球選手之內在休閒動機與認真休閒特質對休閒涉入及休閒滿意度之研究─以全國大專院校為例。運動 休閒餐旅研究,8(2),141-159。
  5. 李君如、賴仕峰(2011)。樂團參與者之認真休閒與遊憩專門化關係之探討。休閒事業研究,9(1),17-34。
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