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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 103 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 內政部(2008)。低收入戶生活狀況調查報告。台北:內政部。
  2. 王永慈(2005)。<臺灣的貧窮問題:相關研究的檢視>,《臺大社工學刊》,10:1-54。
  3. 王德睦、何華欽、劉一龍(2008)。<所得成長、所得不均與家戶變遷對貧窮率之影響:以台灣地區1990年至2004年為例>,《臺灣社會福利學刊》,7(1):29-63。
  4. 甘獻基(2011)。<社會救助法之建構-我國與法國法制之比較研究>。臺北:國立臺灣大學法律學研究所碩士論文。
  5. 朱柔若、孫碧霞(2008)。<對抗社會排除:歐盟政策檢討>,《國家與社會》,5:99-157。
Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
  1. 陳湘晴(2014)。政府與非營利組織之協力關係: 以台中市政府愛心食物銀行為例。臺北大學公共行政暨政策學系學位論文。2014。1-175。
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