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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 134 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 王雅芸(2014),《金融業服務品質與顧客滿意度對顧客忠誠度之影響》,臺灣大學農業經濟研究所碩士論文。
  2. 朱湘寧、廖紫柔、巫沛倉(2014),「模糊理論應用於旅遊業PZB服務品質評量之研究」,《觀光與休閒管理期刊》,2(1):108-120。
  3. 邱建中、戴登燦、李惠元、陳炎星(1995),「臺中區基層農會營運現況之調查報告」,《臺中區農業改良場研究彙報》,47:33-47。
  4. 何文榮、周皇成(2005),「臺灣農會信用部經營成功的關鍵因素之研究」,《華人經濟研究》,3(2):78-107。
  5. 吳韻吾、顏行誠、郭怡助、徐暐倉(2013),「室內設計公司服務流程服務品質關鍵指標之研究-以顧客價值之觀點」,《物業管理學報》,4(2):25-34
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