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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 98 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 丁文郁,1998。「台灣農民非營利組織策略規劃之研究-以台灣農會為例」,國立臺灣大學農業推廣學系研究所博士論文。
  2. 吳明珠,2010。「庇護工場轉型社會企業之可行性研究」,國立臺灣師範大學社會教育與文化行政碩士學位在職專班碩士論文。
  3. 吳蕙如,2010。「我輩貓人:流浪貓保護運動的興起與建構」,國立臺灣大學社會科學院社會學系碩士論文。
  4. 呂朝賢,2008。「社會企業與創業精神:意義與評論」。國立政治大學社會學報,第39期,81-117。
  5. 官有垣,2000。「非營利組織在台灣的發展:兼論政府對財團法人基金會的法令規範」,中國行政評論,第10卷第1期,75-110。
Times Cited (2) 〈TOP〉
  1. 邱于軒(2015)。為流浪動物奮鬥── 動物保護人士之轉化學習歷程。清華大學學習科學研究所學位論文。2015。1-134。 
  2. 葉文琪(2016)。貓城崛起:新北市猴硐貓觀光地景的形構。臺灣大學建築與城鄉研究所學位論文。2016。1-110。
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