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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing a document with a DOI, the DOI permanent URL should always be presented (if using APA or Chicago format, present number). If using a citation format that does not specify DOI, the DOI permanent URL should still be presented as a priority.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 51 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 何承駿,2009,《現階段中國汽車產業的自主創新及創新體系研究》,臺北市:國立臺灣大學國家發展研究所碩士論文。
  2. 林惠玲、詹立宇、謝玉玫,2009,〈產業集聚與廠商研發活動之研究-台灣電子業廠商之驗證〉,《人文及社會科學集刊》,第21卷第4期:521-554。
  3. 夏衛,2005,《中國大陸技術引進政策之調整與實施》,臺北市:遠景基金會季刊,175-212。
  4. 袁孝勲,2006,《後發優勢與趕超的競爭態勢演化-從日、韓經驗看兩岸汽車產業自主研發的發展機會》,桃園縣:元智大學管理研究所碩士論文。
  5. 黃智聰、歐陽宏,2008,〈世界中國對中國直接投資決定因素之研究〉,《遠景基金會季刊》,第7卷第2期:139-177。
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