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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 93 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 《明清史料乙編》。臺北市:中央研究院歷史語言研究所,1997。
  2. 王圻,《明萬曆續文獻通考》,收錄於《四庫全書存目叢書.子部.類書類.第186冊》。臺南縣:莊嚴文化,1995年據中國科學院圖書館藏明萬曆三十一年曹時聘等刻本影印。
  3. 田文鏡、王士俊等監修,孫灝、顧棟高等編纂,《河南通志》,收錄於《文瀾閣欽定四庫全書.史部.541》。杭州市:杭州出版社,2015。
  4. 朱廷立、史紳等撰,《鹽政志》,收錄於《北京圖書館古籍珍本叢刊.史部.政書類.第58冊》。北京:書目文獻出版社,1993年據明嘉靖刻本影印。
  5. 朱樟修,田嘉穀等纂,《澤州府志》,收錄於《新修方志叢刊.山西方志.第3冊 》。臺北市 : 臺灣學生,1968年據淸雍正13年刊本影印。
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