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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 43 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. Alling, E., & Naismith, R. (2007). Protocol analysis of a federated search tool: Designing for users. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 12(1-2), 195-210.
  2. Brinck, T., Gergle , D., & Wood, S. D. (2002). Usability for the web :Designing web sites that work. San Francisco : Morgan Kaufmann Publishers.
  3. Calhoun, K. (2006). The changing nature of the catalog and its integration with other discovery tool. Retrieved November 10, 2008, from
  4. Cockrell, B. J. & Jayne, E. A. (2002). How do I find an article? Insights from a web usability study. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 28(3), 122-132.
  5. Coyle, K. (2007). The library catalog: Some possible futures. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 33(3), 414-416.
Times Cited (2) 〈TOP〉
  1. 劉幸玟(2013)。以資料預設介面協助公共圖書館讀者使用電子資源整合查詢系統之評估研究-以臺北市立圖書館Hyint2.0系統為例。臺灣大學圖書資訊學研究所學位論文。2013。1-106。 
  2. 鄭伊廷(2011)。檔案目錄整合檢索系統之優使性研究 -以ACROSS為例。政治大學圖書資訊與檔案學研究所學位論文。2011。1-117。
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