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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 148 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 余玉眉、戴玉慈、張媚 (2010)‧我國護理教育、考試制度與專業核心能力—從國際接軌角度探討‧護理雜誌,57(5),5-11。
  2. 王秀紅、蔡秀敏、胡毓雯(2008)‧台灣護理人員角色未來的發展‧長庚科技學刊,(9),1-9。doi:10.6192/CGUST.2008.12.9.1
  3. 王蓉君、陳恆德(2011)‧臺灣臨床試驗發展之沿革‧臺灣醫界,54(7),51-55。
  4. 白玉珠、徐南麗、汪蘋(1999)‧某醫學中心護理人員自評之護理能力及個人特質相關性研究‧護理研究,7(3),209-220。
  5. 林秋芬、盧美秀、康偉玲(2004)‧護理能力標準:國際版與台灣版之比較‧新臺北護理期刊,6(2),11-22。
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