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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 147 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 于宗先與王金利,2003,一隻看得見的手,聯經:台北。
  2. 安士敦與瞿宛文,2003,超越後進發展:台灣的產業升級策略,聯經:台北。
  3. 周行一、陳錦村與陳坤宏,1996,家族企業、聯屬持股與公司價值之研究,中國財務學刊,4卷第1期,頁115-139。
  4. 洪榮華、陳香如與林慧珍,2007,公司治理機制對創新、多角化策略及公司績效之影響-研發密集產業之實證,中山管理評論,15卷1期,頁37-60。
  5. 葉銀華、許培基、王健安與李佩恩,2003,台灣集團企業治理機制之研究,行政院經濟建設委員會委託專案。
Times Cited (4) 〈TOP〉
  1. 許秀彤(2013)。營運資金管理對財務績效之影響-以台灣集團之企業為例。淡江大學會計學系碩士在職專班學位論文。2013。1-110。 
  2. 姚延宗(2012)。臺灣電子集團企業於中國大陸之獲利能力研究。臺灣大學國家發展研究所學位論文。2012。1-93。 
  3. 周啟明(2008)。台灣企業集團之國際化與集團資源及產業環境之關係。政治大學國際經營與貿易研究所學位論文。2008。1-79。
  4. 黃雅君(2013)。中小企業成長速度之前因探討:以台灣中小企業為例。中正大學企業管理學系學位論文。2013。1-85。
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