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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 92 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 陶儀芬,2006,〈政治權力交替與經濟機會主義:集體行動與改革時期中國「政治經濟景氣循環」〉,《問題與研究》,45(3):77-101。
  2. David Beetham著,鄭樂平譯,1992,《科層制》,台北市:桂冠出版社。譯自Bureaucracy. Milton Keynes: Open University Press. 1987.
  3. Alex Cukierman, Steven B. Webb, and Bilin Neyapti. 1992. “Measuring the Independence of Central Banks and Its Effect on Policy Outcomes.” The World Bank Economic Review 6(3):353-398.
  4. Bruce Gilley, and David Murphy. 2001. “Why China Needs A Real Central Bank.” Far Eastern Economic Review 164(20):48-52.
  5. C. Duncan MacRae. 1977. “A Political Model of the Business Cycle.” The Journal of Political Economy 85(2):239-263.
Times Cited (2) 〈TOP〉
  1. 曾迺強(2012)。中國人民銀行職能轉變之研究。中正大學戰略暨國際事務研究所學位論文。2012。1-197。
  2. 李易遠(2013)。中國金融國有商業銀行股份制改革觀察:政權運作邏輯。清華大學社會學研究所學位論文。2013。1-155。
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