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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 73 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 11. 吳政達(2005)。品牌聯想形象、認知契合度、知覺品質對品牌延伸商品購買意願之探討—以台灣連鎖咖啡店為例」。樹德科技大學經營管理研究所碩士論文,高雄市。
  2. 12. 李鴻文(2007)。「台灣連鎖咖啡產業之價值創新研究」。運動休閒餐旅研究,2(3),137-160。
  3. 13. 沈孟穎(2001)。台北咖啡館:一個(文藝)公共領域之崛起、發展與轉化。中原大學室內設計研究所碩士論文,中壢市。
  4. 22. 財團法人商業發展研究院(2009)。大中華地區產業分析報告-連鎖餐飲產業。
  5. 33. 薛顯昌(2009)。多元尺度法運用在最佳產品之研究—以高雄市某連鎖咖啡館為例。國立高雄餐旅學院餐旅管理研究所碩士論文,高雄市。
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