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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 59 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 田哲榮、司徒懿(譯)(2010)。解析質性研究法與資料(原作者:D. Silverman)。新北市:韋伯文化。(原著出版年:2006)
  2. 吳政鴻(2010)。一位手球選手霸凌經驗的自我敘說。國立臺北教育大學體育學系碩士論文。
  3. 余貞誼(2005)。質性研究如何進行深度訪談與建立互信關係。婦研縱橫,76,31-47。
  4. 何熙國(2012)。被遺忘的主角:霸凌事件的旁觀者。國立臺北大學犯罪學研究所碩士論文。
  5. 林采霖(2011)。受傷者的話療-聆聽校園霸凌受害者的生命故事。國立臺灣大學新聞研究所碩士論文。
Times Cited (2) 〈TOP〉
  1. 姜延蓉(2017)。少年時期曾受關係霸凌者之因應與復原歷程。臺灣大學社會工作學研究所學位論文。2017。1-172。 
  2. 劉姿慧(2015)。從情境到實境:高風險青少年參與體驗教育後之轉化歷程。臺灣大學社會工作學研究所學位論文。2015。1-129。 
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