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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 292 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. American Psychiatric Association (1994) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-IV. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
  2. American Psychiatric Association (2000) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-IV-TR. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
  3. Allen, Davina, Lesley Griffiths and Patricia Lyne (2004) Understanding Complex Trajectories in Health and Social Care Provision. Sociology of Health & Illness 26(7): 1008-1030.
  4. Allsop, Judith (2006) Medical Dominance in a Changing World: The UK Case. Health Sociology Review 15(5): 444-457.
  5. Ballenger, Jesse F. (2006a) The Biomedical Deconstruction of Senility and the Persistent Stigmatization of Old Age in the United States. Pp. 106-120 in Thinking about Dementia: Culture, Loss, and the Anthropology of Senility, edited by Leibing, Annette and Lawrence Cohen. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press.
Times Cited (2) 〈TOP〉
  1. 盧意婷(2016)。協商理想親職:自閉症孩童家長的敘事與實作。臺灣大學社會學研究所學位論文。2016。1-151。 
  2. 丁茹喬(2015)。照顧中的互惠:失智老人日間照顧中心照顧服務員的情緒勞動。臺灣大學社會工作學研究所學位論文。2015。1-145。 
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