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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 34 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. Bennett, Jane. Thoreau's Nature: Ethics, Politics, and the Wild. Rowman Littlefield Publishers, 2002.
  2. Bingham, Shawn Chandler. Thoreau and the Sociological Imagination: The Wilds of Society. Rowman Littlefield Publishers, 2007.
  3. Cafaro, Philip. Thoreau's Living Ethics: Walden and the Pursuit of Virtue. University of Georgia Press, 2004.
  4. Chan Hsiao-Chia 詹效嘉. “Foluosite zhuyao shizuo zhong zhi ‘chaoyuezhu yi’ yu ‘fanchaoyuezhuyi’ yiti ji qi zai yingyujiaoxue shang zhi yingyong” 佛洛斯特主要詩作中之「超越主義」與「反超越主義」議題及其在英語教學上之應用 [Transcendentalism and Anti-transcendentalism in Robert Frost's Major Poems and Its Application to English Teaching]. MA thesis. National Changhua University of Education, 2006, Accessed 20 July 2020.
  5. Chang Wei-kuo 張維國. “Yi ke ziran tiyan jiaoyu de zhong zi – cong ziran xiezuo yu ziran jiaoxue de duihua Zhong mengya” 一顆自然體驗教育的種子─從「自然寫作」與「自然教學」的對話中萌芽 [A Seed of Natural Awareness-Budding from the Dialogue between “Nature writing” and “Nature teaching”]. MA thesis. National Hsinchu University of Education, 2002, Accessed 20 July 2020.
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