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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing a document with a DOI, the DOI permanent URL should always be presented (if using APA or Chicago format, present number). If using a citation format that does not specify DOI, the DOI permanent URL should still be presented as a priority.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 113 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 王光旭,2008,<數位民主行政與官僚回應性:民意電子信箱強化回應性認知研究初探>,《政策研究學報》,(8):77-115。
  2. 李治安、林誠夏、莊庭瑞,2014,<開放政府資料的基本原則與相關政策議題>,《公共治理季刊》,2(1):65-76。
  3. 李宇美譯,2011,《鄉民都來了:無組織的組織力量》,臺北市:貓頭鷹出版。譯自Clay Shirky. Here Comes Everybody: The Power of Organizing Without Organizations. New York: Penguin Group. 2008.
  4. 林宇玲,2014,<網路與公共領域:從審議模式轉向多元公眾模式>,《新聞學研究》,118:55-85。
  5. 洪貞玲、劉昌德,2004,<線上全球公共領域?網路的潛能、實踐與限制>,《資訊社會研究》,(6):341-364。
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