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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 84 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 王美玉、紀櫻珍、林裕能、吳振龍,2005,〈臺北市立醫院自主管理之初步評估〉,《北市醫學雜誌》,2(1):61-70。
  2. 李政賢譯,2014,《質性研究:從開始到完成》,臺北:五南。譯自Yin, K. Robert. Qualitative Research From Start to Finish, Guilford Publications.2014.
  3. 周原,2011《請別叫我「爪耙子」:臺灣吹哨者的故事》,台北:台灣大學社會科學院新聞研究所深度報導碩士論文。
  4. 林水波、邱靖鈜,2011,〈行政失靈的理論建構與命題驗證——以擴大博愛特區 爭議為例〉,《政策與人力管理》,2(1):1-38。
  5. 孫志麟,2000,〈教育改革的新議題:學校自主管理〉,《學校行政》,6:35-40。
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