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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 148 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. Singer, Peter A.著,蔡甫昌譯,臨床生命倫理學,財團法人醫院評鑑暨醫療品質策進會,2009年,2版。
  2. 王澤鑑,法律思維與民法實例,王慕華,1999年。
  3. 林火旺,倫理學,五南,2007年。
  4. 洪鎌德,法律社會學,揚智,2004年,2版。
  5. 黃榮堅,刑法問題與利益思考,元照,1999年。
Times Cited (4) 〈TOP〉
  1. 李俊良(2015)。論人體檢體生物醫學研究之管制體系─以委員會控核機制及研究倫理法律義務為核心。國立臺灣大學法律學研究所學位論文。2015。1-522。 
  2. 裴松毅(2013)。胚胎及胚胎幹細胞研究之法律規範。國立臺灣大學科際整合法律學研究所學位論文。2013。1-109。 
  3. 翁松崟(2014)。刑事醫療過失客觀注意義務之標準與限縮——以病患自主權及醫師裁量權為核心。臺北大學法律學系一般生組學位論文。2014。1-148。
  4. 吳育胤(2014)。論醫療關係之保密義務。臺灣大學法律學研究所學位論文。2014。1-230。
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