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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 97 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 金蕙蘭:《現代漢語新詞研究》(台北:國立政治大學中國文學研究所碩士論文,竺家寧指導,2006年)。
  2. 郭雯琪:《零起點短期速成聽說教材之研究設計》(臺北:臺灣師範大學華語文教學研究所碩士論文,葉德明指導,2009年)。
  3. 張寶楡:《對外初級華語教材編寫之課程規劃設計–以零起點為主–》(臺北:國立臺灣師範大學華語文教學研究所碩士論文,葉德明指導,2010年)。
  4. 姚淑婷:《對外華語文識字教學之課程設計與研究》(臺北:中原大學應用華語文研究所碩士在職專班碩士論文,張于忻指導,2011年)。
  5. 洪嘉馡、黃居仁:〈語料庫為本的兩岸詞對應詞會挖掘〉,《語言暨語言學》第2期(2008年4月),頁221-頁238。
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