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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 43 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 杜文苓,2007,〈審議民主與社會運動:民間團體籌辦新竹科學園區宜蘭基地公民會議的啟發〉,《公共行政學報》,23:67-93。
  2. 林子倫,2008,〈審議民主在社區:台灣地區的經驗〉,台北:發表於海峽兩岸參與式地方治理學術研討會,國立台灣大學社會科學院、國立台灣大學社會科學院中國大陸研究中心、中國浙江大學公共管理學院聯合舉辦。
  3. 林心睿,2010,《利益團體與審議民主的互動:「核廢何從公民討論會」之個案分析》。台北:政治大學公共行政研究所學位論文。
  4. 林國明、陳東升,2003,〈公民會議與審議民主:全民健保的公民參與經驗〉,《台灣社會學》,6:61-118。
  5. 林國明,2009a,〈公共領域、公民社會與審議民主〉,《思想》,11:181-195。
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