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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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  1. 2. 李佩衿、游萬來,(2003),尋路地圖表現形式的使用性研究,碩士論文,國立雲林科技大學工業設計系,雲林。
  2. 4. 張天鳳,(2006),3D虛擬環境中地標輔助與尋路策略傾向對空間知識之影響,碩士論文,交通大學傳播研究所,新竹。
  3. 5. 張錦桐,(2008),以步行者觀點探討西門圓環周邊開放空間之研究,碩士論文,國立台北科技大學建築與都市設計研究所,台北。
  4. 7. 陳正德,(2004),空間結構與行人移動之模擬-以西門徒步區為例,碩士論文,國立臺灣大學建築與城鄉研究所,台北。
  5. 10. 黃幹忠、葉光毅,(2008),行人於台中市一中商圈之路徑選擇行為模式探討,都市與計劃,35(1),79-98。
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