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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 161 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 李小華譯,2001,《結構衝突 : 第三世界對抗全球自由主義》,杭州市 : 浙江人民出版社。譯自Stephen Krasner. Structural conflict: the Third World against global liberalism. Berkeley: University of California Press. 1985.
  2. 林子倫,2008,〈台灣氣候變遷政策之論述分析〉,《公共行政學報》,28:153-175。
  3. 鍾從定,2004/5、6月,〈國際多邊談判分析〉,《問題與研究》,43(3):135-158。
  4. Amin, Samir. 1976. Unequal Development: an Essay on the Social Formations of Peripheral Capitalism. translated by Brian Pearce. NY: Monthly Review Press.
  5. Antrim, Lance N.. 1994. “Dynamics of Leadership in UNCED.” in Bertram I. Spector, Gunnar Sjostedt and I. William Zartman eds.. Negotiating International Regimes: Lessons Learned from the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development(UNCED). Laxenburg: International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis. pp. 149-164.
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