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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 30 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. (2). Eileen M Crimming. Trends in the health of the elderly. Annual Review of Public Health 2004;25:79-98.
  2. (3). Kenneth G Manton and Xiliang Gu “Change in the prevalence of chronic disability in the United States black and nonblack population above age 65 from 1982 to 1999”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2001;98(11): 6354-6459.
  3. (4). Douglas A. Wolff, Kelly Hunt and Fame Knickman. “Perspectives on the recent decline in disability at old ages.” The Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly 2005;83(3): 365-395.
  4. (6). A. Parasuraman, Valarie A. Zerithaml and Leonard L. Berry. A conceptual model of service quality and its implications for future research. The Journal of Marketing 1985; 49(4):41-50.
  5. (21). 胡名霞,許書旋,江秀玲,吳淑瓊(2006):全國長期照護物理治療人力需求推估。中華物療誌31(1):15-24。
Times Cited (3) 〈TOP〉
  1. 翁良綺(2015)。我國長期照護政策對個人影響之初探。淡江大學會計學系碩士在職專班學位論文。2015。1-107。 
  2. 柯姿婷(2015)。長期照顧機構經營策略之研究–以臺北市小型長期照顧機構為例。淡江大學公共行政學系公共政策碩士在職專班學位論文。2015。1-197。 
  3. 廖慧媛(2012)。長期照護經營管理關鍵成功因素之研究一以A長期照護中心為例。臺灣大學資訊管理組學位論文。2012。1-78。 
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