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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 150 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. Saskia Sassen著,黃克先譯(2006),《客人?外人?遷移在歐洲(1800∼)》,臺北:國立編譯館
  2. 李震山(2000),《人性尊嚴與人權保障》
  3. 林紀東(1970),《中華民國憲法逐條釋義(第一冊)》,臺北:三民
  4. 王永慈(2005),〈台灣的貧窮問題:相關研究的檢視〉,《台大社工學刊》,第10期,頁1-54
  5. 王德睦、呂朝賢、何華欽(2003),〈台灣貧窮門檻與測量的建立:FCSU的應用〉,《臺大社工學刊》,第8期,頁1-46
Times Cited (2) 〈TOP〉
  1. 陳佳微(2012)。我國與英國生活扶助制度之比較研究。中央大學法律與政府研究所學位論文。2012。1-232。
  2. 廖于慧(2013)。臺北市貧窮家庭與社會救助服務之互動。臺灣大學國家發展研究所學位論文。2013。1-139。
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