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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 102 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. Alpert, F. H. and M. A. Kamins (1994). "Pioneer Brand Advantage and Consumer Behavior:A Conceptual Framework and Prepositional Inventory." Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 22: 244-253.
  2. Anderson, G. (2007). "From ‘soak the rich’to ‘soak the poor’: recent trends in hospital pricing." Health Affairs 26(3): 780-789.
  3. Artis, L., T. Burkhart, et al. (2006). "Physician factors as an indicator of technological device adoption." Journal of Medical Systems 30(3): 177-186.
  4. Bagust, A., A. Grayson, et al. (2006). "Cost effectiveness of drug eluting coronary artery stenting in a UK setting: cost–utility study." Heart 92(1): 68-74.
  5. Brooks, J., A. Dor, et al. (1997). "Hospital-insurer bargaining: An empirical investigation of appendectomy pricing." Journal of Health Economics 16(4): 417-434.
Times Cited (3) 〈TOP〉
  1. 李偉民(2014)。台灣醫院急診利用的影響因素分析。臺北醫學大學醫務管理學研究所學位論文。2014。1-84。 
  2. 林綺莉(2011)。如何確保醫療器材品質:國際制度比較與我國制度現況分析。臺灣大學健康政策與管理研究所學位論文。2011。1-116。
  3. 廖益誠(2011)。全民健保政策對醫藥產業經營策略與模式的影響- 以A公司為例。臺灣大學商學組學位論文。2011。1-93。
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