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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 130 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 12. 何建志,基因歧視與法律對策之研究,國立臺灣大學法律學研究所碩士論文, 2002年6月。
  2. 21. 李素華,從公共衛生觀點論醫藥專利權之保護與限制,國立臺灣大學法律學研究所博士論文,2006年6月。
  3. 51. 曾淑瑜,從日本之生命倫理法-「規範基因技術法」之訂定為相關問題之初探,法令月刊,第52卷第8期,第4頁以下,2001年8月。
  4. 58. 陳文吟,探討美國Moore v. Regents of the University of California對生化科技之影響(The Impact of Moore v. Regents of the University of California on the Biotechnology),收錄於:曾陳明汝主編,《智慧財產權與國際私法-曾陳明汝教授六秩誕辰祝壽論文集》,第221頁以下,1997年3月。
  5. 59. 陳文吟,從美國NIH申請人體基因組序列專利探討我國專利制度對生物科技發展的因應之道,中正大學法律叢刊,創刊號, 1998年7月。
Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
  1. 莊馥嘉(2010)。生技製藥廠商就其疫苗產品的專利保護及攻防策略之研究。國立臺灣大學科際整合法律學研究所學位論文。2010。1-182。
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