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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing a document with a DOI, the DOI permanent URL should always be presented (if using APA or Chicago format, present number). If using a citation format that does not specify DOI, the DOI permanent URL should still be presented as a priority.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 43 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. [3]Akinci, B., M. Fischer, J. Kunz, and R. Levitt. 2000. Formalization and Automation of Time-Space Conflict Analysis. CIFE working paper 58, Stanford University.
  2. [4]Barnett, J.H. 2005. Early Writings on Graph Theory: Euler Circuits and the Königsberg Bridge Problem. Colorado State University.
  3. [5]Charnes, A., W. Cooper, and E. Rhodes. 1978. Measuring the Efficiency of Decision Making Units. European Journal of Operational Research, 2(6): 429-444.
  4. [6]Cheng, M.Y., and J.T. O’Connor. 1996. ArcSite: Enhanced GIS for Construction Site Layout. J .Constr .Eng. Manage. 122(4): 329-336.
  5. [8]Hegazy, T. 1999. Optimization of Resource Allocation and Leveling Using Genetic Algorithms. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management. 125(3): 167-175.
Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
  1. 廖峰毅(2016)。動態網絡資料包絡分析法探討台灣半導體產業效率。淡江大學財務金融學系博士班學位論文。2016。1-140。
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