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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 76 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 丘昌泰(2010),《公共管理》。台北:智勝文化。
  2. 吳明珠(2011),《庇護工廠轉型社會企業之可行性研究》。臺灣師範大社會教育學系碩士論文。
  3. 呂朝賢(2008),〈社會企業與創業精神:意義與評論〉,國立政治大學社會學報,第39期,81-117。
  4. 陳定銘(2007),《非營利組織、政府與社會企業理論與實踐》。台北:智勝。
  5. 封昌宏(2006),《非營利組織租稅優惠的法律分析-兼評私立學校租稅優惠問題》。國立成功大學法律學系。碩士論文。
Times Cited (2) 〈TOP〉
  1. 謝旻育(2017)。從地方到網絡,稻田裡的餐桌計畫─農村社企「幸福果食」的組織網絡。臺灣大學建築與城鄉研究所學位論文。2017。1-114。 
  2. 邱俊毓(2016)。社會企業資源困境與解決之道。淡江大學會計學系碩士班學位論文。2016。1-147。
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