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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 45 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 侯升雍、李茹萍 (2009) •護理人員照護癌末呼吸困難病患的知識、態度和行為趨向之研究•護理雜誌,56(3),46-56。[Hou, S. Y., Lee, R. P.(2009). Nurse’s knowledge, attitude, behavior intentions in the care of terminal stage cancer patients with dyspnea. The Journal of Nursing, 56(3), 46-56.]
  2. 姚建安、邱泰源、胡文郁、陳慶餘 (2004) •國內外安寧緩和醫學教育現況•安寧療護雜誌,9(1),28-43。[Yao, C. A., Chiu, T. Y., Hu, W.Y., Chen, C. Y. (2004). Current state of hospice palliative medical ducation in developed countries and Taiwan. Taiwan Journal of Hospice Palliative Care, 9(1), 28-43.]
  3. 高淑芬、洪麗玲、邱珮怡 (1998) •某大學護生對死亡態度之探討•長庚護理,9(4),20-30。[Kao, S. F., Hung, L. L., Chiou, P. Y. (1998). A study of attitude toward death among the nursing students in a university. Chang Gung Nursing, 9(4), 20-30.]
  4. 莊紫雲、楊易宏、熊道芬、謝佑珊 (2011) •探討加護護理人員照護「不予心肺甦醒術」病人之態度及倫理困境•榮總護理,28(4),378-386。[Chuang, T. Y., Yang, Y. H., Hsiung, T. F., Hsieh, Y. S. (2011). The factors of critical care nurse's attitudes toward DNR and ethic dilemmas. Veterans General Hospital Nursing ,28(4), 378-386.]
  5. 張育菁、張碧真(2009)•對新生兒加護病房執行DNR困境之建議•護理雜誌,56(4),94-99。[Chang ,Y. C., Chang ,P. C. (2009). Suggestion for the dilemma of executing DNR in the neonatal intensive care unit. The Journal of Nursing, 56(4), 94-99.]
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