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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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  1. 3. 白榮吉、蕭穎謙、陳楠熹、陳意婷、劉忠輔、黃宛婷及杜育帆(2013)。線上購物網站網路社群經營關鍵成功因素之多重個案研究-以Facebook粉絲頁為例。創新研發學刊,9,1,19-37。
  2. 6. 吳姮憓、羅偉峰。(2014)。按讚,留言或分享-探究影響臉書訊息反應行為意圖之前置因素。行銷評論, 11,2,107-131。
  3. 9. 劉士豪(2011)。網路社群經營實務。研考雙月刊,284,36-44。
  4. 11. 財團法人資訊工業策進會資訊產業情報研究所(2014)。2014年3月底止台灣上網人口。。2016/05/01搜尋。
  5. 12. 財團法人資訊工業策進會資訊產業情報研究所(2014)。網路社群口碑需求調查。。2016/05/01搜尋。
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