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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 88 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 1.行政院環境保護署(2011)。動物生態評估技術規範。臺北市,臺灣,中華民國。
  2. 2.行政院農業委員會水土保持局、水土保持學會(2005)。水土保持手冊。南投市,南投縣,臺灣,中華民國。
  3. 7.林旭宏、張世倉(2006)。關聯式資料庫在生物資源調查上的應用-以Access實作河川魚類調查資料庫為例。自然保育季刊,53期,20-31頁。
  4. 8.林信輝、李明儒、孫明德、黃俊仁(2003)。生物整合指標(IBI)之應用探討。水土保持學報,35期(1),81-96頁。
  5. 9.林極(2010)。溪流狀況指數(ISC)之水文次指數應用於上游河溪生態棲地之評估。國立臺灣大學生物環境系統工程學研究所碩士論文,臺北市。
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