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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 58 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 朱雲漢,2004,〈臺灣民主發展的困境與挑戰〉,《臺灣民主季刊》,1(1):143-162。
  2. Earl Babbie, The Practice of Social Research, 8th ed.. Belmont:Wadsworth.
  3. 洪永泰,2003,〈原始樣本、替代樣本、與追蹤樣本的比較:「2001年台灣選舉與民主化調查研究」訪問失敗問題的探討〉,《選舉研究》,10(2):37-58。
  4. 范凌嘉,1999,《台灣縣市長選舉預測模型之研究:一個基礎模型的建立及其應用》,台北:國立政治大學政治學研究所碩士論文。
  5. 徐永明,2001,〈政治版圖—兩個選舉行為研究途徑的對話〉,《問題與研究》,40(2):95-115。
Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
  1. 許育誌(2011)。應用集群分析於台灣政治版圖之研究─以十一屆至十三屆總統選舉為例。政治大學統計研究所學位論文。2011。1-73。
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