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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 108 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 王文英、張清福,2004,《智慧資本影響績效模式之探討:我國半導體業之實證研究》,會計評論第39期,2004年7月,頁89-117。
  2. 李揚、李曉娟,2008,《亞洲生技產業之總要素生產力解析-應用隨機邊界模型》,農業與資源經濟(台灣農業與資源經濟學會),第5 卷第1 期,頁55-76。
  3. 林安樂,2000,《台灣總要素生產力變動分析》,經濟專論198,財團法人臺灣經濟研究院。
  4. 林灼榮、李秀英、蕭莉芃,2009,《台灣IC產業公司治理與技術效率之攸關性研究》,經濟與管理論叢,第5卷第一期,頁29-54。
  5. 林灼榮、蔡榮德、邱敬貿、康家維,2007,《研發投入與人力資本對臺灣紡織業與通訊產業生產效率攸關性之研究》,東吳經濟商學學報第58期,頁89-120.
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