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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 30 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 1. 李吉仁審訂,謝凱宇、林舒柔譯,現代策略管理,科大文化事業股份有限公司,2002。
  2. 2. 昝家騏、劉榮聰,運動產業的市場區隔與其對運動行銷的涵意,大專體育,50期,165-171頁,2000。
  3. 3. 葉公鼎,論運動休閒產業之範疇與分類,運動管理季刊,1期,8-21頁,2001。
  4. 5. 蔡芬卿,國內建立運動經紀專業制度探討,大專體育,83期,120-126頁,2006。
  5. 7. 蘇維杉,運動健身俱樂部行銷管理型態之研究,中華民國第一屆休閒與運動管理國際學術研討會,2001。
Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
  1. 何采樺(2014)。我國高爾夫運動產業現況與永續經營之探討。朝陽科技大學休閒事業管理系學位論文。2014。1-139。
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