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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 35 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. [9] 國立師範大學科學教育中心:中學自然學科學習成就評量資料。
  2. [11] 張美玉、吳玉明(民88):不同學習型態學生學習表現的探討-解釋推理及問題解決能力。台北:科學教育學刊。
  3. [13] 教育部:九年一貫課程與教學網。
  4. [1] Anderson, H. H., "Domination and socially integrative behavior. In R. G. Barker, et al., (Eds.) Child Behavior and Development." N. Y. :MaGraw-Hill. (1943).
  5. [4] Downs, V., Javidi, M., and Nussbaum, J. "An analysis of teachers’ verbal communication within the college classroom. Use of humor, self-disclosure, and narraatives." Communic- ation Education, 37, 127-141, (1988).
Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
  1. 江佩娟(2011)。外在因素對自然科學習成就之影響—以桃園市桃園國中七年級學生為例。大同大學生物工程學系所學位論文。2011。1-50。
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