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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 156 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. Abrams, P., Abrams, S., Humphrey, R., & Snaith, R. (1989). Neighborhood care and social policy extracts. In J. Bornat, J. Johnson, C. Pereira, D. Pilgrim & F. Williams (Eds.), Community care ─ A Reader (pp. 52-59). Houndmills: Macmillan.
  2. Alborz, A. (2003). Transitions: Placing a son or daughter with intellectual disability and challenging behaviour in alternative residential provision. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 16, 75-88.
  3. Bigby, C. (1996). Transferring responsibility: The Nature and effectiveness of parental planning for the future of adults with intellectual disability who remain at home until mid-life. Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 21(4), 295-312.
  4. Bigby, C. (1997a). Later life for adult with intellectual disability: a time of opportunity and vulnerability. Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability.
  5. Bigby, C. (1997b). Parental substitutes? The role of siblings in the lives of older people with intellectual disability Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 29(1), 3-21.
Times Cited (9) 〈TOP〉
  1. 黃棋傲(2015)。中高齡智障者主要照顧者壓力及因應策略-以屏東縣為例。屏東科技大學社會工作系學位論文。2015。1-178。 
  2. 李孟儒(2011)。少年未升學未就業經驗的意涵:生命歷程理論觀點。臺灣大學社會工作學研究所學位論文。2011。1-171。 
  3. 何雨威(2010)。「全職」媽媽的「兼職」工作?台灣已婚育女性選擇部分工時工作的就業經驗探討。臺灣大學社會工作學研究所學位論文。2010。1-265。 
  4. 王佩倫(2008)。愛在日落餘暉時—單身老年女性親密關係經驗之初探:本質、發展及影響因素。政治大學社會學研究所學位論文。2008。1-225。
  5. 陳思伯(2010)。從親密感探討失智症照顧者面對疾病的歷程。臺北大學社會工作學系學位論文。2010。1-166。
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